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Why Car Accident Cases Can Be A Nightmare To Face For Car Owner?



For a car owner, the worst thing that can happen to him is a car accident. A car accident brings lots of trouble for the car owner as they have to face many legal formalities and paperwork. If it is not done in a proper way then there can be huge trouble for the car as well for the owner. Therefore, a car owner cannot solely handle such tricky situations in the court, he must need an experienced someone for help and show the path.

In this case, the most sensible and reliable option is to go for thebest car accident attorney in Knoxville. They can help a car owner get out of the case accident case with all respect and peace of mind. Also, they assure that the car owner’s car license is safe, and save the car from the clutches of court. But it is not all an easy job to take up as for such a situation an experienced lawyer is a must.

However, car owners do fear car accidents as they can be a nightmare to face for them for some vital reasons. These are:

  • Fear of losing car license

Perhaps it is one of the common fears of all car owners as if once the car license is seized by the legal authorities, then the car owner has to keep running here and there to release the car from the court.

  • The huge flow of money

Just to release the car or its license the car owner has to spend tons of money on legal matters. This process is very expensive as the flow of money is high. Also, if the case is too much twisted then the excess flow of money does not even work. 

  • Time-consuming process

This is a very time-consuming process as if the car owner has injured someone then the case will get long and there are tiny chances to get justice.

Nonetheless, if the car owner chooses the best car accident attorney in Knoxville, then there can be some chances of getting justice and decreasing the flow of money getting expensed. Some advantages that a car accident attorney can provide are:

  • They can negotiate a good settlement with the insurance adjuster or with the defence attorney.
  • Gather all the necessary information and evidence related to the car accident that experts or police could not find.
  • They give vital advice, suggest following the measures, arrange and submit the paperwork in all key details.
  • Help to negotiate with the insurance company so that they do not delay giving the money to the car owner.

Having a car accident lawyer gives away many benefits even in the long term. With the help of a car accident lawyer, a car accident case might not be a nightmare to face. But if the car owner wants to handle all this single handily then it can be a horrible nightmare to face and deal with.

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A Digital Valve for Controlling Water Temperature Based on Microcontroller PIC16C71




The digital valve adopts an NTC thermistor as a temperature sensor, forms a simple voltage divider circuit with a fixed resistor as a water temperature measurement circuit, and uses the built-in 8-bit A/D converter of the PIC16C71 microcontroller to convert the analog voltage on the thermistor into digital voltage. The PIC16C71 microcontroller controls the DC motor to drive the water mixing valve to adjust the mixing ratio of cold and hot water, achieving water temperature adjustment. The control circuit diagram is given, and the parameter selection and temperature measurement accuracy of the water temperature measurement circuit is discussed in detail. Experiments and analysis show that choosing an NTC thermistor and voltage divider with a larger resistance value can better solve the problem of thermal breakdown caused by the larger power consumption of the thermistor.

With the development of society, various water heaters and hot water pipes have entered thousands of households. People have various requirements for the water temperature on different occasions. It is often necessary to mix hot and cold water to the required temperature. 

As a valuable technology, the intelligent digital valve can control the water temperature of various water heaters and pipeline hot water and can quickly and accurately adjust the required temperature of hot water. It is able to be used in showers, washes, and other places requiring hot water with a constant temperature. This design is in line with this need, with the PIC16C71 microcontroller as the core, this digital valve is able to control the mechanical part to automatically adjust the mixing ratio of cold water and hot water, to realize the automatic control of the water temperature, and to solve the problems of water temperature fluctuating cold and hot caused by fluctuations in water pressure and changes in water temperature or changes in water output. This way has a more obvious saving effect than manual adjustment of water temperature. 

1. System structure and working principle

Hot water and tap water are used as the two inputs of the control valve, and the mixing valve is used to control the input amount and proportion of cold and hot water, and the mixed water flows out through the water outlet for use by users. The temperature sensor installed at the water outlet senses the temperature at the water outlet and transmits it to the microcontroller through the temperature measurement circuit. The composition of the digital valve is shown in the figure below. When the water outlet switch is turned on, the microcontroller compares the temperature at the water outlet measured by the temperature sensor with the set temperature. When necessary, the microcontroller PIC16C71 controls the DC motor to drive the water mixing valve to adjust the ratio of cold and hot water entering the water valve. Thereby, the temperature of the outlet water is controlled. When the motor turns to the end, the single-chip microcomputer gets the corresponding signal to stop the motor from continuing to rotate in the same direction. 

Set the water temperature within the range of 25 to 50°C through the temperature rise or temperature drop button, and the LED digital tube displays the set water temperature value. If the set temperature does not match the temperature detected by the sensor, according to the temperature difference between the two, the single-chip microcomputer outputs pulse voltage signals of different widths to control the DC motor to rotate at different speeds and drives the cold and hot water mixing valve through the transmission mechanism to change the inflow ratio of cold and hot water. When the external conditions change again, such as the water pressure decreases or increases, there is a temperature difference between the water temperature of the outlet pipe and the set temperature. At this time, the single-chip microcomputer controls the rotation of the motor again and automatically adjusts the water temperature, so that the water temperature of the water outlet is automatically adjusted to make the water temperature of the water outlet automatically consistent with the set water temperature.

System block diagram

Digital valve circuit

2. Control panel and circuit

The design of the control panel button should be minimized, and it is easy to use, reasonable in function, easy to control and operate, and the instrument can display the set temperature. The control panel is shown in the figure below. The 2-digit LED digital tube on the left side of the panel is used to display the preset water temperature. The temperature rise button and temperature drop button on the upper right of the panel are used to increase and decrease the temperature of the preset water temperature respectively. The lower right of the panel is a manual switch, which determines the switch of the water valve and the size of the water outlet. When it is set to “off”, it is in the non-working state.

A circuit diagram of a control valve is shown above. The system uses a low-voltage DC power supply, uses PIC16C71 single-chip microcomputer for control, and realizes various functions through program control.

2.1 Temperature measurement principle and parameter selection

In Figure 3, the thermistor RT is a temperature measuring element used to measure the water temperature at the water outlet. A fixed resistor R16 is connected in series with the thermal RT to form a voltage divider circuit. The voltage drop on the RT is connected to the pin through the resistor R17 to AN0 and is input to the built-in 8-bit A/D converter of the PIC16C71 to convert the analog voltage signal into a digital signal. The signal is read by the program to realize temperature measurement. The key to temperature measurement is to choose suitable temperature measurement components and reasonable circuit parameters. Here is a negative temperature coefficient thermistor (NTC), which is packaged in a glass envelope with small size, low price, and easy to install. The main advantages of NTC temperature measurement thermistors are the large temperature coefficient of resistance, high sensitivity, fast response speed, and accurate temperature measurement. The main disadvantage is that the non-linear phenomenon of thermoelectric characteristics is serious. If using C408503 (at 25°C, resistance is 50 kΩ, B value is 4050 K, glass package) NTC thermistor, in the range of 0~99°C, the sensitivity of the resistance is about 8500~100 Ω/°C, When non-linear is serious, linear compensation is generally required during use. Here, through calculation and selection of reasonable temperature measurement circuit parameters, within the effective temperature measurement range, no linear compensation is performed, and the nonlinear problem of NTC temperature measurement resistance is effectively solved by only using the temperature look-up table. The temperature measurement accuracy and the selection of circuit parameters are discussed below.

The resistor R16 is connected in series with the thermistor RT to form a voltage divider circuit, which divides the power supply voltage of 5 V. The voltage drop on RT Vi=5 V·RT/(RT+R16) changes with temperature. This voltage is sent to the A/D converter inside the PIC16C71 through the input pin AN0 of the A/D and converted into a digital signal, which is read and used by the program. A 0.1 μF capacitor C3 is connected in parallel with RT to realize filtering to eliminate interference and noise. In the trial, it was found that when the resistance of the selected NTC thermistor (such as the nominal value of 10 kΩ) and the voltage dividing resistor (such as 5.1 kΩ) is small, the thermistor is easy to be broken down after working for a period of time. And after selecting the NTC thermistor and the voltage dividing resistor with a larger resistance value, the problem is better solved. After analysis, the reason should be the thermal breakdown caused by the large operating current and power consumption in the NTC thermistor. Therefore, an NTC thermistor and a voltage divider with a larger resistance should be selected as far as possible to minimize the current flowing through the thermistor. 

On the other hand, considering that the maximum input leakage current of the A/D input signal pin of the PIC microcontroller is ±500 nA, to ensure the correct A/D conversion result, it is required that the voltage lost on the internal resistance of the signal source should not exceed 10 mV (1/2 LSB when the A/D reference voltage is 5 V), which requires the internal resistance of the signal source not to exceed 20 kΩ at most. When selecting the NTC thermistor with a nominal name of 50 kΩ and B25/50 as 4 050 K, its resistance value in the temperature range (0-99°C) varies between 168.3-3.217 kΩ. When the fixed voltage divider resistor is 20 kΩ, the equivalent internal resistance of the A/D input signal source is the resistance value of the thermistor and the voltage divider resistor in parallel with the resistance value ranging from 17.9kΩ to 2.77 kΩ, which can meet the requirement that the maximum internal resistance of the signal source cannot exceed 20 kΩ during A/D conversion. The corresponding input signal voltage Vi to A/D ranges from 4.469 V to 0.693 V, covering the valid A/D input voltage range (0 ~5 V), the corresponding digital quantity after 8-bit A/D conversion is between 0xE5~0x23. In the temperature range of 0 to 97 °C, when the temperature changes by 1 °C, the corresponding input voltage change is between 55.5 and 19.7 mV. All are greater than the analog voltage value of 19.6 mV corresponding to 1 LSB, so the accuracy of temperature measurement after 8-bit A/D conversion is guaranteed to reach ±1 °C; In the temperature range of 97 to 99 °C, when the temperature changes by 1°C, the corresponding analog input voltage change is between 18.8 and 18.5 mV. The temperature measurement accuracy of the 8-bit A/D conversion cannot reach ±1°C, but the normal temperature measurement is generally not higher than 95°C. And the outlet temperature is controlled at 25 ~ 50 ℃ is also relatively low.

The above analysis shows that the temperature measurement accuracy of ±1°C can be met without adding a conditioning circuit for the input signal. A/D analog input pin AN0 is connected in series with R17 for current limiting protection to prevent chip damage or hardware deadlock caused by overvoltage input because it will directly affect the internal resistance and sampling time of the A/D analog input signal source. The resistance value of R17 should not be too large, and the resistance value is selected as 1kΩ. RT selects the precision of NTC thermistor of 50 kΩ±0.5%, its B25/50 is 4050 K±1%, and the divider resistor R16 selects the metal film resistor with good thermal stability and precision of 20kΩ±0.5%.

2.2 Keyboard input and output display circuit

When designing the input circuit,  the characteristics of the software-controlled weak pull-up circuit of the PORTB port in PIC16C71 are fully used. The keyboard inquiry circuit is composed of resistors R6, R7, R8, buttons S1, S2, S3, and resistor R12, and the status of the buttons is inquired through pins RB6, RB5, and RB4. When the RB4~RB6 pins are used as input terminals, they are connected to the buttons S1, S2, and S3 respectively. S1 is the temperature increase setting button, S2 is the temperature drop setting button, and S3 is the handle switch associated key. RB6, switch S3, and R12 form a water state query input circuit and the water state is input by the RB6 pin. The set water temperature is output by RB1~RB8 through the current limiting resistors R5~R11 and then output by the two-digit LED digital tube. The output of RA1 and RA2 controls VQ1 and VQ2 as the position control of the LED digital tube.

2.3 DC motor drive circuit

The turn-on and turn-off of the transistors VQ3-VQ6 are controlled by the output levels of pins RA3 and RB0, which are used to control the polarity reversal of the power supply of the DC motor M. The voltage drop value of the sampled DC motor M is sent to another input channel of the A/D converter of the PIC16C71 chip. The voltage drop across the motor is sampled by R14, R15 and then input to the A/D converter by the RA4 pin. It is then read by the program for judging the motor position and control.

3. A/D data processing

During the test, it is found that if the temperature data after A/D conversion of PIC16C71 is directly used for temperature control without processing, the motor will malfunction from time to time. Even if various filter circuits are added to the temperature measurement circuit, there is still no improvement. Therefore, it is inferred that the interference may come from the inside of the A/D conversion module. Considering the slow change of field temperature in this system, the sliding window averaging method is suitable for digital filtering. After the digital filtering method is used to average the 16 consecutive temperature data obtained after A/D conversion, the noise after A/D conversion is effectively eliminated.

4. Conclusion

The digital valve for controlling water temperature is powered by a low-voltage DC power supply to ensure safety. The water outlet switch and the flow rate are controlled by a single handle. The water temperature is preset by the button and displayed by the digital tube. The operation is simple. The outlet water temperature can be set between 25 and 50°C, and the resolution is 1°C. If the water temperature of the water outlet is inconsistent with the set water temperature, the LED digital tube will flash to remind you to pay attention. At the same time, the single-chip microcomputer generates pulses to control the speed and forward and reverse rotation of the motor according to the height and difference between the two and drives the mixer water valve through the transmission mechanism to adjust the water inlet ratio of cold and hot water. The water valve is used in conjunction with a domestic water heater, and can automatically and quickly adjust the required water temperature, which can prevent the stimulation of hot and cold water, make bathing comfortable, and features an obvious water-saving effect.

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192 kHz Digital Audio Receiver CS8416CSZ Introduction




General Description

The CS8416 is a digital audio receiver with up to 192 kHz sampling rates. It allows S/PDIF and AES/EBU audio data to be exchanged between consumers and professional audio equipment. Up to eight channels of digital audio input data can be processed by an 8:2 input multiplexer. For increased system flexibility, the input multiplexer’s second output can be used as a S/PDIF pass-through.

It contains a clock-recovery system with exceptionally minimal jitter that produces a very clean recovered clock from the incoming audio stream. The gadget additionally has three general-purpose output pins with customizable signal routing. The CS8416 is an industry-leading 192 kHz digital audio receiver with an extraordinarily low jitter performance of 200 ps.

CS8416 Series Features & Benefits

• Totally compatible with EIAJ CP1201, AES3, IEC-60958, and S/PDIF receiver

• +3.3 V analog (VA) and digital (VD) supply

• CD Q Sub-Code decoding ability 

• Sample frequency ranges from 32 kHz to 192 kHz

• Supports SPI or I2C interface in stand-alone hardware mode

• Compressed audio input streams auto-detection

CS8416-CSZ Pin Configuration (for pin function info, refer to datasheets)

CS8416-CSZ Footprints

CS8416-CSZ 3D Model

CS8416-CSZ Dimension

CS8416-CSZ Block Diagram


Where to Use CS8416 Series

A/V receivers, CD-R, DVD receivers, multimedia speakers, digital mixing consoles, effects processors, set-top boxes, and computer and vehicle audio systems are among the target applications.

(2 VRMS Subwoofer Line Out)

How to Use CS8416

To show the influence of each receiver’s output jitter, the CS4398 high-performance DAC was used to collect audio performance data. Each test was run on a single CDB4398 customer evaluation board. To achieve a smooth low-frequency THD+N response, the CDB4398’s CS4398 FILT+ capacitor was raised from 100 F to 1000 F. For all measurements provided by the CS8416, a CDB8416 customer evaluation board was utilized to run the CS4398 on the CDB4398. For further information on each evaluation board, see the CDB4398 and CDB8416 datasheets.

User Guidelines – Improvements From CS8413/14 to CS8416

Aside from the differences indicated in the chart, there are a few more distinctions between the CS8413/14 and the CS8416 that a designer contemplating making the switch should be aware of. A summary of some of the most noteworthy distinctions is presented below for your convenience. Please refer to the datasheet for each item for further information.

The CS8416 and the CS8413/14 do not pin compatible.

The receiver input pins on the CS8416 are not RS-422 compatible; the absolute maximum voltage range for the receiver input is 12 V for the CS8413/14 and -0.3 V to VL + 0.3 V for the CS8416.

The VA and VD supply voltages for the CS8413/14 are 5 V and 3.3 V, respectively.

The CS8416 and CS8413/14 have differing external PLL filter component values.

When the PLL is unlocked, the recovered clock frequency for the CS8413/14 is around 3 MHz, and for the CS8416, it is approximately 375 kHz or 750 kHz, depending on the set RMCK ratio.

During reset, the CS8416 recovered clock output pin is not active. The C and U data framing implementations on the devices differ in a number of ways. The devices display their input sample rate in a variety of ways.

In the hardware mode of the CS8416, some pins devoted to reporting the C data bits on the CS8414 are not available.

In software mode, the CS8413 is not register-compatible with the CS8416.

In the CS8416’s software mode, the first five bytes of both channels’ C data register is accessible, but the CS8413 permits sequential 1-byte access to all 24-bits of a single channel’s C data.

(Summarized by Easybom)


Alternative Parts

Market Quotation

Popularity across the World

Stats Analysis

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Maintenance Tips for your 4×4 Car



As an owner of a 4×4 car or truck, you want to make sure that you have good routine maintenance to keep your vehicle in excellent condition. This powerful vehicle, with a strong engine power (measured by its kW or kilowatt and torque) distributed on all four wheels can sustain heavy terrains. 4×4 vehicles have that specific look, with front bumpers that command power obvious to anyone coming across them. 4WD cars are designed to be sturdy vehicles that can handle off-road trips with rough conditions and steep inclines. But that doesn’t mean these reliable cars don’t need the TLC they deserve!

To the contrary, they need more care so they don’t break down during your trip, especially when you’re in the middle of nowhere, where a garage or mechanic is not readily available. 

So here are some maintenance tips for your 4×4 car:

1. Get to know your car inside and out.

You are probably familiar with cars already and their maintenance. And the way to maintain 4×4 cars or trucks is almost the same as any other regular car. But as 4wd vehicles are expected to have a much better performance, it is critical to ensure that the parts are in excellent condition.

Of course, not all 4×4 are exactly the same. For example, there are ones that have more ground clearance, and hence more appropriate for rocky, dirt roads and bodies of water. If you have one of the lower ones, you need to be careful that you’re not driving through rough roads that your car cannot handle.

The important step in maintaining a 4×4, or any car for that matter, is to not put it through much work that it damages the car.

2. Get it serviced regularly.

If you are not too familiar with your new 4wd just yet, it’s best to take it to a professional who can check and ensure that the parts are in optimal condition. Some people like to get their car fully serviced every 5,000 to 6,000 miles. But it depends on your car and how often you drive it, and the road conditions you are driving it in.

When you take your car for a full service, the mechanic will do the following for you: oil change; putting new air filter, changing the spark plugs, checking the capacity of the battery–making sure that it has enough charge, and checking fluids are all topped up.

The mechanic can also tell you what is the best schedule for your regular full-service routine. 

3. Pay attention to the tires and their alignment

Make sure all tires are balanced and aligned. This means that the tire sizes are all the same. It’s also a good practice to rotate your tires as the wear and tear on the front and back wheels are not the same. Rotating tires on your 4wd means that they are used on different sides of the car. 

When driving, and you notice that the car is not driving straight, and is leaning to one side, that means that the car is misaligned. It is recommended that you take it to the garage to be checked.

4. Inspect the shocks

Shocks or shock absorbers is one of the 5 Things You Need to Dress Up Your 4WD Car. Having good quality shock absorbers means that you have a better driving and passenger experience as it absorbs any impact when driving over rough ground, bumps, and potholes. Moreover, it prevents damage, not only in the items you have in your car, but also the suspension which provides steering stability. This is why it’s important to regularly inspect the shocks, and also the other parts connected to it such as bushings, and rubber mounts.

These maintenance tips cover all the bases for keeping your vehicle in excellent condition so that you can enjoy every trip, be it off-roading or a long drive with friends or family.

On top of these maintenance tips, you can also dress up your 4wd car or truck, which will not only make it more attractive but add sturdiness and protection for your vehicle. For example, a nudge bar is a good accessory which also protects the front bumper. Images supplied by Virtual Assistant Thailand

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Digital Oilfield Market-Size, Insights of Scope, Compound Annual Growth, Forecast to-2020(Trending Report)




With COVID-19 resulting in the economic fallout, numerous economies are working on game-changing improvements to protect their employees and clients. While focusing on the ongoing challenges, the leaders are embracing new plans in order to manage and stay afloat in this competitive environment. 

Digital oilfield market is expected to be reach USD 30.78 billion by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 4.31% from 2015 to 2020. Increased focus on oil production has been boosting the demand for these solutions after the oil price slump in 2014. Oilfield operators are targeting to increase their production levels to maintain their market share while the service providers are targeting low-cost oil producing countries.

Production optimization is the largest market by process type. This segment is also expected to be the fastest growing mainly by the increasing demand for optimizing production solutions. Increased recovery from the mature oilfields is being preferred to development of new fields as lower cost are involved. DOF solutions aid effective utilization of recovery enhancing techniques such as artificial lift and enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

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The Final Report will cover the impact analysis of COVID-19 on this industry: Digital Oilfield Market-Size, Insights of Scope, Compound Annual Growth, Forecast to-2020(Trending Report)

Instrumentation & automation segment which is the largest market by service type is mainly contributed by Distributed Control System (DCS) component. This is attributed to the growing demand of automation in oilfield processes. Reduction of human capital by leading market players increased the demand for automated solutions. Automated ecosystem improves control and monitoring capabilities along with enhanced field safety.

Europe is expected to focus on enhanced production from mature fields making it the largest market for DOF solutions.
Drilling activities in the region have declined significantly due to soring oil prices. This has terminated several planned projects and resulted in the lowered profits of the operators and service providers. Offshore crude production, the dominant segment in the region, has been severely impacted by the oil price decline therefore the scope of implementing DOF solutions has shifted towards more from the recovery of hydrocarbons from the mature fields.

Primaries conducted for this market study include participants from various geographies such as Asia-Pacific, Europe, and North America among others. Maximum primary interviews were done in Asia-Pacific followed by Europe with 34% of the primary interviews conducted from Asia-Pacific. These participants included C-level, director level and other industry professionals. Major emphasis is given on the interviews for the C-level participants who the key decision makers for company operations. C-level participants accounted for 34% while director level participants were 29% of the total number of primaries. Considering the company level, 22% of the participants were from Tier 1 companies, 47% were from Tier 2 companies and the remaining 31% were from Tier 3 companies.

Middle East is expected to have the highest growth rate during the forecast period while Europe is expected to have the largest share. These regions are boosting their production levels and are key markets for the DOF service providers. DOF solutions can be implemented in the entire workflow of the oilfield to analyse every operation.

Fill This Form and get the Sample Copy of This Report:
The Final Report will cover the impact analysis of COVID-19 on this industry: Digital Oilfield Market-Size, Insights of Scope, Compound Annual Growth, Forecast to-2020(Trending Report)

Why buy this report
The report offers market estimations and projections till 2020 and offers a complete study of the market dynamics. In addition, the report provides the competitive landscape with major growth strategies adopted by the key players.
Product Analysis and development: Insights on upcoming technologies, research and development activities, and new product launches in the global digital oilfield market. In-depth analysis of the DOF implementations in various regions depicts a clear picture of the market scenario.
Market Development: Includes information about lucrative emerging markets. The report also analyzes markets for DOF solutions across geographies
Market Diversification: Information about new products, untapped regions, recent developments, and investments decisions in the market. Description regarding related and unrelated diversification pertaining to this market
Competitive Assessment: Assessment of market shares, and company share analysis of key players. Business strategies and manufacturing capabilities of leading players enhance the bottom line of the companies in the DOF market.


2.4.2 KEY DATA FROM PRIMARY SOURCES 23 Key Industry Insights 24

The dynamic nature of business environment in the current global economy is raising the need amongst business professionals to update themselves with current situations in the market. To cater such needs, Shibuya Data Count provides market research reports to various business professionals across different industry verticals, such as healthcare & pharmaceutical, IT & telecom, chemicals and advanced materials, consumer goods & food, energy & power, manufacturing & construction, industrial automation & equipment and agriculture & allied activities amongst others.

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Tips for taking care of your used car



If you take good care of your car now, you can prevent damage and maintain the value of your car.

Dirt and grime are the enemies of every vehicle and its owner’s greatest worry. Only those who regularly care for and clean their car will be able to enjoy it for a long time to come. In our car care guide, we explain the ten most important cleaning steps for a long car life.


Dirt and salt residues accumulate during the cold season, especially in hard-to-reach places such as the underbody and wheel housings. You should remove this winter dirt with a high-pressure cleaner before the actual wash. But be careful: the hard jet can damage the tyres. If an engine wash is due, leave it to the experts – the electrics and contacts under the bonnet are sensitive to water.


After the winter months, the glass is not only dirty on the outside: The heater and fan have also caused a cloudy coating inside. A glass cleaner clears the view – simply spray on and wipe off, not forgetting the mirrors and headlights.


To tackle the unholy alliance of brake dust, dirt and salt, spray the wheels with a rim cleaner before going to the car wash. After cleaning, you can preserve them with a protective preparation. Tip: Spray the tyres with a rubber care product before changing them – this refreshes the shine and protects them from becoming brittle.


Now your car is ready for a trip through the car wash. The brushes remove the coarsest dirt. To avoid limescale stains after washing, you should remove any water residue with a cloth. Unfortunately, even modern car washes can’t get everywhere: You will have to remove dirt from rain drains, door frames and cut-outs yourself with a little water, cleaner and a sponge.


Once the dirt is off, scratches and stone chips often appear. These must be sealed with a touch-up pencil, otherwise, there is a risk of rust. If the paintwork is faded, a polish will give it a new shine. Do not work in the blazing sun and always proceed in sections. Another car care tip: Car wax provides the necessary paint protection afterwards.


The seals on the doors and boot are exposed to extreme weather conditions in winter. If they become brittle, there is a risk of leaks. In addition, the doors can stick in the summer when it is hot. Use a rubber care product to make the seals supple again. The chrome trim also deserves special treatment: a polishing paste restores the shine to dull trim. The care product also protects against flash rust. But be careful: the abrasive chrome paste should not get on the paintwork.


Cleaning the windscreen alone is not enough. Only good wiper blades ensure that the windows stay clean. When wipers freeze in winter and are used on ice and snow, cracks can form in the sensitive rubber lip. This leads to streaks on the glass and obstructs visibility. Replace such wipers immediately. Speaking of changing: The antifreeze has no business in the wiper water reservoir in summer. Now it’s a matter of removing insects from the windscreen, for which there are suitable cleaning additives.


First of all, the winter ballast must be removed: snow chains, shovels and ski racks increase vehicle weight and air resistance and thus cause unnecessary extra consumption. Tip: When clearing out, also dry out the spare wheel well – moisture and dirt often collect at this lowest point and cause rust and unpleasant odours. Clean the dry interior with a hoover – or even a high-pressure cleaner if the rubber floor mats are dirty.


Special upholstery cleaners can be used to remove stains from the seats. Rub the foam only on the surface so that the upholstery does not get soaked. Then brush out the dirt. Leather seats need extra care: a polish makes the material supple again and protects against water stains.


Without regular care, the plastics of the dashboard will fade. Cockpit sprays or special cleaning cloths refresh the colours and keep the material supple. To prevent the cockpit from attracting dust in the future, the products should be antistatic. There are cleaners for glossy or matt surfaces.


By following these steps everyone can make sure they extended the life of their used car as much as possible while making it look as good as when it rolled off the forecourt. Wear and tear is inevitable with any machine, however, no matter how much you look after it. Frequent servicing is a must, and if you want to protect yourself from unforeseen repair costs, it pays to invest in an extended used car warrant. Make sure you use a reputable supplier and read the small print to ensure the level of cover is sufficient for your needs.

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