Slope protection

Contractors and home builders company บริษัทรับสร้างบ้านconstruction company Often never overlooked in terms of soil erosion prevention. And in general, natural slopes may be eroded by surface water. and collapse of the soil along the slope Preventing such erosion can be done by diverting surface water at the top of the steep ridge to prevent it from flowing down the slope. or by making a slope as a step to reduce the speed of surface water as it flows down the slope

Methods to prevent erosion of banks or ramps in construction รับสร้างบ้านinclude paving stones or wire mesh boxes.

• Paving stone covering the top of the soil. is to put stones of mixed sizes together instead of the original soil surface on the slope or river bank to prevent erosion

• The thickness of the paving stone should be at least larger than the largest rock removal.

• Sackcloth, sand and gravel to allow drainage.

Cribbing Wall and Bin Wall retaining walls help to fix steep slopes or banks with very steep slopes.

• Cribbing wall is a wall made from pieces of steel, wood and concrete, forming a grid framed together at right angles. and then packed with soil or stone

• Bin Wall is a wall made of precast concrete shaped like a bucket with polished lock edges and filled with gravel or broken stone.

• Wire mesh stone box. Made from galvanized (galvanized) wire mesh or PVC wire mesh woven into a basket shape. or a box filled with stones

A natural defense method is to plant cover crops with root systems to hold the top of the soil from erosion, such as vetiver.

27. Retaining Walls

Instant change in ground elevation The angle of repose of the soil is greater than the angle of repose, so we need to use retaining walls to prevent soil erosion.

Retaining walls should be designed to withstand entrapped lateral forces. The lateral pressure values ​​are from the top of the soil surface. and more as a ratio when deep in the soil It assumes that the soil pressure is applied at the center of gravity of the triangle, i.e. the height of the base 1/3 of the total height.

• The load on the soil surface (surcharge) is the weight caused by the side soil above the level of the retaining wall. by thinking as acting as a force parallel to the slope of the soil surface per unit leading the load to the surface

• Approximately, the 33° angle is a constant slope angle. or angle of repose of most soils

Retaining walls can flip, slide or collapse if they are designed to be improperly sized. Therefore, the following characteristics should be taken into account:

• Side pressure will cause the retaining wall to turn over at the end point of the base (circle mark)

• To prevent the turning of the retaining wall. This is caused by the side pressure T at the vertical H/3 position from the pivot point to form a moment M° = (T × H/3), so flip resistance is required. That is, the weight of the wall and the weight of the soil. All on the foundation of the wall combined to form a force W pressed down at position d (W × d) horizontally from the pivot point to form a moment of resistance M°, given Mr>2 M° for double safety.

• To prevent slippage of the retaining wall. The product of the weight including the wall and the pressure weight on the base W and the coefficient of friction must be greater than the side pressure of the soil by W×C. >1.5T for safety to be 1.5 times.

• Resistance from opposite soil to resist slippage.

• The wedge that forms part of the wall under the base increases the sliding resistance.

• The coefficient of friction of gravel is 0.6, dry clay is 0.5, sand is 0.4, wet clay is 0.3.

• To prevent the collapse of the retaining wall, the weight force (W) must not exceed The bearing capacity of the soil (Bearing Capacity: B C.) under the base W is the weight of the wall and the base including the weight of the soil on the base, combined, where BC >1.5 W/A (when A is the area under the base). for safety is 1.5 times

Reinforced concrete retaining wall

The ratio of the recommended retaining wall sizes is for general information purposes only. When designing retaining walls, consult a structural engineer. especially retaining walls located on soils that do not have load-bearing properties. or located in the area where the load is contributed on the side of the soil surface or areas with stray loads

Center of gravity retaining wall

Retaining walls of this type rely on the weight of the wall to provide stability against a flip. The thickness of the wall resists the depth of the opposite soil and resists slipping. Suitable for soil with a height of not more than 10′ (3,048)

T-shaped retaining wall

T-shaped retaining wall base, commonly made of reinforced concrete. Suitable for soils that are happy to 20′, if higher than this should be supported by a retaining wall of the foundation type.

Retaining wall of the base type with support

This type of wall uses triangular support panels to support the wall to strengthen the wall. This will increase the result of the total weight. This will result in frictional resistance to slip along the way. Usually there will be support boards every The distance is half the wall height.

Retaining wall type with L-shape base

This type of wall is commonly used in cases where a wall is intended to be built in someone else’s land. to prevent the other side of the base from extending into the land area of ​​others

wooden retaining wall

Brick-stone retaining wall

stone retaining wall