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How to change your micro-enterprise activity?



Certain events occurring in the professional or personal life of the micro-entrepreneur may justify a decision to modify his independent activity.

Development of the activity, desire for retraining, or the accumulation of several activities, so many situations which sometimes require a change in the initial activity.

Fortunately, a change in the activity of the micro-enterprise is possible during the course of its social life, which means that micro-entrepreneurs can modify the activity during its exercise.

What is a change in activity and how does it differ from cessation of activity and Stardew Valley Rancher or Tiller? Explanations.

The context of a change in activity 

When the micro-entrepreneur wishes to develop his activity , he may have to modify his main activity but also his secondary activities.

The change of activity can be carried out at any time of the life of the company which is reassuring for the self-employed person who is sometimes uncertain of the future of his activity when starting up.

The change in activity can result in a complete change of activity if the new activity is totally different or partial if the activity remains similar. The auto-entrepreneur can also plan an extension of his activity by combining several activities at the same time. 

When creating a micro-enterprise, the main activity of the micro-entrepreneur is referenced by an APE code assigned by INSEE. 

Understand the difference between main activity – secondary activity and ancillary activity.

The modification of activity can concern the main activity, the secondary activity of the auto-entrepreneur or both.

The main activity exercised is the dominant activity of the auto-entrepreneur, that is to say the one which generates the most turnover.

secondary activity is an activity carried out in addition to the main activity.

Finally, it should be noted that the ancillary activity concerns an activity related to the main activity. It is directly linked to the main activity.

The coexistence of different activities gives rise to the following scenarios:

  • There are two activities that are clearly distinct from each other.
  • There are two activities which are related but each activity is autonomous and could be carried out independently of each other.
  • There are two activities but the second is an ancillary activity because it complements the main activity.

What is the APE code and what is its use?

Remember that the APE code (main activity exercised) identifies the main sector of activity of the company or the self-employed person. It is allocated by INSEE at the time of the company’s registration or declaration of activity.

The code is made up of 4 digits and 1 letter, and refers to the national statistical classification of French activities.

Following a change of activity, the APE code is not modified if the activity is similar. If the activity changes completely, a new APE number will be assigned to the company.

Concretely, how to modify its activity?

The change of activity of the auto-entrepreneur must respond to a specific procedure.

The steps are as follows:

1. Procedures with Urssaf

The first steps must be taken on the Urssaf site by going to the “ Manage my own business ” category leading to a specific form via the section: “ Modify my activity ”.

2. Description of the current activity

The micro-entrepreneur must fill in all the information relating to the identity of his current business such as:

  • The SIRET number
  • His date and name of birth;
  • His department;
  • His municipality;
  • Its customary name;
  • His first names.
  • The SIE (Business Tax Service) 

3. Description of the activity to be modified

This involves determining the nature of the new activity by specifying its nature:

  • commercial;
  • artisanal or;
  • liberal.

4. The specific activity modification form: form P2 cerfa 11678 * 06

The form is accessible on the personal Urssaf account of the auto-entrepreneur.

The latter must fill in all the fields and then sign the official document electronically or on paper.

5. Sending the form to the competent CFE

The auto-entrepreneur must return the document to the CFE (Chromatic Orb dnd 5E) on which he depends, along with a copy of his identity document.

The differences in procedures between modification of the activity and cessation of activity

The procedure for cessation of activity differs from the procedure for modifying the activity of the auto-entrepreneur.

The cessation of activity may be necessary in the context of a transformation of activity such as the change of a micro-enterprise into a company for example. Thus, it will be necessary to terminate the initial activity for the creation of the new company.

The cessation of the activity can also intervene at the request of the micro-entrepreneur who no longer wishes to continue his activity.

1. Declaration of cessation of activity: information from the CFE

The formalities can be carried out online via the Urssaf website. The auto-entrepreneur must go to his personal account and select the section “ Cesser mon auto-entreprise ”. 

2. The declaration of turnover and the regularization of the last social contributions

The micro-entrepreneur must then complete the specific form for the cessation of activity: form P4 cerfa 11932-03.

It provides information relating to the closure of the activity. 

This form can be sent electronically accompanied by the micro-entrepreneur’s identity card or in paper version directly to the CFE with a copy of his identity card.

Finally, the auto-entrepreneur must declare his last turnover and be up to date with his last social contributions.

3. Income declaration form n ° 2042 and additional declaration n ° 2042 – C-PRO

Two other forms must be completed by the auto-entrepreneur in order to declare his income received during the last year: income statement form n ° 2042 and the additional declaration [pii_email_4bd3f6cbbb12ef19daea].

This formality must be completed no later than 45 days after the end of the activity.

4. Pay the CFE (business property contribution)

Like the activity modification procedure, the auto-entrepreneur who ends his activity must pay the CFE for which he is liable.

5. Transmission of documents to the Registry of the Commercial Court.

Micro-entrepreneurs reporting to the Commercial Court Registry (commercial agents in micro-enterprises) must send the declaration of definitive cessation of activity to the Commercial Court Registry to validate the end of the activity. 

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The Best Feature of a Video Editor



tvtap pro

The main features can be normally described as video frame capture, video editing and also ultimately video rendering..

1. File Capture/ Transfer

Any video editing software program, you take a look at if it is of any type of high quality will certainly use transfer of dv.avi video from a typical definition tape based camera.

Although this common interpretation system is quite in decline nowadays it might be of significance if you have archives of old video taken when dv.avi was state of the art!

Keep in mind very carefully that this is the ONLY method to capture or transfer video files from a DV camera to a computer system at complete quality.

All video camera manufacturers constantly include a USB wire with these DV camcorders as well as it is an unlimited source of confusion for the brand-new customer. You can use xvideostudio video editor pro apk gif to generate more useful gif in a little bit of time.

The USB cable is included with the cam for the transfer of pictures from the video camera to the computer system or for low quality streaming video clip.

The USB cord is likewise usually used to move video clip files from cameras that record in any other layouts such as MPG4, MPEG2, MOV, AVCHD and so on

. If you are making use of a video camera to resource your original documents after that nowadays it is not actually an attribute you need concern yourself with excessive.

Great video editing and enhancing software application will suit all types of capture/ transfer techniques.

At this factor is to examine the video software application can handle your certain file kind.

Catch Cards

If you are utilizing a video capture card to transfer video clip data from your TV to your computer for later editing and enhancing or transferring old VHS tapes for editing as well as archiving after that this is an area that you need to examine meticulously.

These capture cards provide excellent frustration for lots of video modifying software program individuals because of incompatibility issues in between the card as well as the video software program. Today, There are many OTT platform which offers new web series and TV shows but different OTT platforms take different charges. Here I suggest tvtap pro to enjoy these all feature without paying any money.

The source of this is not the cards themselves nor is it the mistake of the software application.

The trouble right here is that there are no stiff technological criteria or procedures in position for the method which they function or interact with each other.

2. Editing

Any great video clip editing software application ought to give at the very least the following features and also functions:

The capacity to in fact deal with the video data types that you have as well as the ability, within the technical restrictions of those documents kinds, to transform them into various other video data types.

To sign up with video clips, cut segments from completions of video clips to reduce them in addition to being able to remove areas from within the video clip files.

To make at least some adjustment to the audio tracks of the video clip submits as well as include extra audio like commentary, audio results and background music to the task.

Look for audio documents compatibility too, MP3, Dolby etc

3. File Rendering/ Output

Your use this last part of the software will certainly depend heavily on what you mean to do with it. Let’s at the very least go over some of the fundamental factors.

It is a great suggestion to examine each type of video editing software application to see if it has some kind of function at the providing phase that evaluates the components you have in your project as well as can make a decision which parts need to be transformed and also which do not.

The name of this attribute differs from software to software yet typically it has a name like “Smart Render, “Smart Encode” or comparable. This can be an actual time saver as well as high quality saver at the point of outputting to your last video clip documents.

If your objective is to melt either DVDs or Blu-ray discs after that you need to check out the writing choices available. Make certain there are great alternatives for the creation of menus and also the capability to exercise great imaginative control over the appearance as well as functionality of the food selections produced.

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Why Should You Invest In Video Conferencing Software During the Pandemic?




Video conferencing software is replacing the need for physical meetings during the difficult time of pandemic and it is the time when you should also invest in one. The following post will help you to understand how video conferencing has become an ultimate solution for remote workers. Explore the content to learn more!


Almost a year has gone but the pandemic situation has not much improved compared to what it was back in March 2020. As the technology-enabled work from home, tools like Zoom, Google Meet, and Skype have become unsung heroes that are both connecting and keeping everyone on the same page. However, to encourage a work environment that will represent a true commitment, collaboration and decision-making, we need more than just communication tools. Employees need more advanced video conferencing software and going forward investing in one during the pandemic can turn out to be one of the best business investments you will ever make.

Why should you invest now?

Earlier this month the world experienced another wave of the coronavirus that has made the situation far more challenging than ever. It is certain that it will take organizations quite a time before they start operating physically with the full team strength. Prysm Systems believe despite the challenges and barriers thrown by the pandemic, it is an experimental and acceptance period where people are more susceptible to try new things and opening up themselves for technical change.

Therefore, it is an ideal time to introduce your employees to the free video conference software that strings the beads of your organization.

How Video conferencing software shaping the future

Now as the physical communication and connections have been severed due to the pandemic, organizations have started to face challenges like- socialization, disparity and miscommunication with remote work. As opening offices is not an option in the current situation, we have to find a way to incorporate work flexibility with video conferencing to connect the modern workforce working remotely.

However, one must understand that remote work is going to be a part of corporate culture and moving forward we believe video conferencing can do the same and make the post-pandemic work a success for organizations. Here are ways how video conferencing software is reshaping the future of corporate meetings:

Enabling personal meet

What was the last time when you enjoyed talking over the voice calls? Never? We guessed that! Compared to the boring phone calls, video conferences grant us the ability to see each other expressions as we discuss the topic, making it more personal and at the same time adding the human touch to the overall experience.

Audio calls fail as a communication solution as parties who are having an important conversion cannot see the facial expression while discussing the aspects of the meeting. This could lead to miscommunication, confusion, and misunderstanding- causing both parties equal amounts of loss and mistrust.

Video conferencing eliminates these drawbacks by providing a platform where parties can interact with the high-quality images, and audio and come to a mutual conclusion through discussion.

Time is money

Right before the pandemic hit the world, companies used to spare a big portion of their operating budget to cover the travel expenses of the employees. As employees have switched to remote work with the technology, organizations have left with plenty of travel money that they can use to invest in virtual video conferencing software to build the bridge between employees- enabling better collaboration and increased production.

In addition, users can also connect in a swift with individuals working from different locations and time zones during their work hour without dragging them outside the comfort of their homes. Isn’t it great? This way they can collaborate without any delay or travel fatigue.

Better audio and video quality

Although tools like Zoom, Google meets and Skype are important for day-to-day communications but when it comes to organizing meets with immense experience one cannot take the risk with low-quality audio and video. While discussing a hot topic on the virtual conference table, high-quality images along with audio and video means better communications; higher engagement and reliable decision-making. On the top, quality video calling means you can interpret the facial expression, eye movement, and body language that would either be missed on communication tools.

Bring everyone to the same table

While in some cases a simple phone call is more than enough to the work-related decision and in others you need more than just a sophisticated solution to discuss the details. Free video conference allows you to bring everyone on the same page and at the same time enable your teammates to participate through quality audio and video. It is a great way to boost communication and engagement between the employees. Other tools go through several updates and are yet not up to the mark when it comes to delivering satisfaction of being connected, forcing employees to switch to only audio calls.

Don’t work on assumptions

incorporating video conferencing can benefit your business but only if utilized properly. While the concept of using most of the free video conference platforms is the same, providing a proper training session to your employees will not bring any harm. After all, you cannot assume everyone in your organization has the same level of technical knowledge and skills. Hosting training sessions will ensure all the employees are well-versed with the advanced features that the video conferencing software brings to the organization and how to use them effectively.

In the end remember, tough times don’t last but tough teams do. The pandemic is the time when you must find ways to engage clients while maintaining the same level of energy with the team and incorporating video conferencing can be the first step toward this goal.

Moreover, if you are looking for reliable video conferencing software consider Prysm Go- one of the most advanced software introduced by Prysm Systems. Feel free to check out all the features available on the website.

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Everything Publishers Need to Know About AMP For Email



Publishers are always looking for the best tools and solutions for their content. And, love it or hate it, email has stood the test of time. If you’re talking e-commerce lead generation and conversion, it’s played an enormous role in connecting brands with users who need them. This article discusses AMP emails and how email publishers can learn to milk the technology for all it’s worth.

Email publishers sensed opportunity and urgency after Google announced the testing of AMP content in Gmail. AMP stands for Accelerated Mobile Pages. The breath of fresh air from publishers was because Google’s announcement breathed new life into email by addressing some of the biggest concerns about this communication channel. Many of these issues border on including dynamic elements within email to match what visitors find on a typical website. They say the devil’s in the details, so let’s dive in.

  • AMP for Email: The Basics

Within a few short years, Google Accelerated Mobile Pages format had redefined web pages in terms of speed and performance. Would it be possible to bring the same experience to email and offer a more robust email solution? Google was willing to try. Thankfully, they delivered AMP for email, a dynamic-first technology that allows users to fill out forms, browse product catalogs, swipe through carousels, make purchases, and complete actions from their inbox that were only available on websites.

Users would love the experience, but publishers can now update email content even after it has arrived in subscriber inboxes. Indeed, Google is up to something, and publishers will receive great benefit from it.

Right off the bat, several heavyweight email clients, including Gmail,,, and Yahoo Mail, made varying commitments to the AMP for Email project.

AMP emails are different from regular emails by content. AMP features a text/x-amp-html MIME part in your email’s MIME tree. The official AMP for Email documentation provides plenty of information about this MIME type.

Any publisher can send AMP emails. That is, anyone can use this novel technology. Besides, it’s open-source, so you can tweak it as you want and contribute to making the project better for everyone.

However, sending an AMP email requires Google’s approval. That might be a drawback for some publishers. But that’s a subject for another post.

Using AMP for Email does not mean you can use every AMP component in email. There is an inbox-specific subset that publishers can use to create the content they want.

When recipients are forwarding AMP emails, they need to remember that email clients will remove the AMP MIME part for Reply or Forward actions. Therefore, it’s essential to provide fallback content in the spirit of graceful degradation.

While AMP for Email has obvious potential for marketers, publishers seem to have a different animal to tame.

Publishers have not seemed to have a pleasant experience with AMP. The most significant issues are those of branding and interference. AMP pages replaced original URLs with a variant. Such is never desirable. Is this the case with AMP emails? Not exactly, but there are other concerns that publishers share about AMP.

AMP allows users to do a lot within an email. But, publishers want the readers to visit their site. It’s a core goal for effective monetization of the lead.

Adopting AMP for Email means publishers need to do a radical reassessment of their business models. AMP ad components are unsupported in AMP for Email. This approach sorely limits the ability of publishers to grow their revenues as AMP-backed content allows on websites.

Besides, newsletters serve different functions and each publisher and each recipient. Some readers want news content in one neat capsule, while others share stories by forwarding them. The secondary recipient will not see the right content when the client strips the AMP MIME part of the email.

A critical characteristic of the modern audience is that they like things more accessible, and AMP for Email can achieve that. However, will your AMP efforts as a publisher actually do that?

  • Important Considerations for Publishers Thinking of Using AMP for Email

Here are a few things to consider before jumping on the AMP for Email bandwagon.

  • Do you have what it takes to develop AMP emails?

Would you be willing to build two versions of each email? It’s essentially what AMP emails require because of the additional MIME part that AMP requires. Is this something you’re willing to do for the long haul?

  • Are you clear on the goals for your email program?

Do you want to build website traffic or grow revenue? Or, do you want both traffic and revenue? Maybe you only want to sustain the user’s awareness about your brand. Whatever your goals are, you need to align them with the possibilities available to you via AMP. We assume it’d be important to you not to lose onsite ad revenue.

  • What client does your audience read email on?

Client support for AMP emails is still scarce. In fact, some clients will never support AMP (it’s a lot of work!). If your AMP-ready audience is not yet a critical mass, you might as well consider waiting until they are to justify the effort.

  • What makes your audience use email for news?

Newsletters allow a reader to digest news quickly and promptly forward it to others. A dynamic AMP email could upset the delicate balance for your audience.

  • Review your email content plan.

There should be solid and non-emotional reasons why you should build AMP emails. However, AMP content needs to contribute to the value of your audience’s email experience. Otherwise, you might try a different and more rewarding strategy.

4 Ways Publishers Can Use AMP for Email

AMP for Email is attractive, but it’s a tricky piece of technology. As a publisher, you need to use it in a way that supplements or reinforces your current business model. Here are a few ways to do this.

  • Include it as a benefit for paying members.

AMP emails require much effort. It’s advisable to make them part of a paid product, especially as universal support is still a long way off.

  • Marketing.

Beyond filling out forms from the inbox, AMP forms may serve business purposes such as event registration and so forth.

  • Alerts for breaking news

Sharing news as it beaks is a way to sustain audience attention. AMP allows updating emails after sending, so this function can help improve the story while the reader follows from their inbox. Use this if it’s more effective than trying to woo the subscriber to your website.

  • Managing email preferences.

Setting email preferences within an email can convince readers to try a different communication channel instead of opting out of all interactions with the brand.

  • Conclusion

AMP for Email is growing, and Google (along with its partners) is doing all it can to increase awareness and adoption of its unique email technology. The prospects are exciting for everyone. While marketers are raving about AMP emails’ potential, publishers have much to benefit from it. It takes a good mix of creativity, ingenuity, and patience to work out a successful business model.

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MilesWeb Review: Managed DigitalOcean Cloud Hosting




Still, trying to take the company online in 2021? What’s holding you back? Finance, a lack of hosting experience, and web management vulnerability are all factors that may prevent you from bringing your company online.

It has become important to take your company online in today’s world of digital marketing.

You may become an online entrepreneur or businessman in a variety of ways.

When you’re working on a website on your personal computer, you’ll need to set aside some space on the web servers to make it public. Hosting refers to the method of putting web pages on servers. Shared hosting, VPS hosting, dedicated hosting, and cloud hosting are some of the different types of web hosting available.

Small websites, small business hosting with low traffic rates go well with shared web hosting. It’s also low-cost and simple to operate. The majority of companies choose shared hosting, in which the website shares physical server services. Because of the distributed resources, this hosting style has a lower cost.

Virtualization is how VPS works. Although the server is shared by many websites, each user is assigned a unique IP address. If you need scalability, VPS is the way to go. VPS is claimed to be a better version of shared hosting, but both hosting styles have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. 

Dedicated hosting is a web hosting type in which you own an entire server. It is better if you have websites with higher traffic and need more resources for your websites. The user has complete control over the server, allowing it to be customized in every way. A consumer can install any program he wants. Dedicated hosting provides a higher degree of protection and no other websites share the server space. 

Cloud Hosting

Cloud storage is a form of computing that distributes data through multiple servers in different locations. Cloud hosting is divided into four categories: public, private, hybrid, and controlled. Dedicated servers lack the elastic scalability and protection that cloud computing provides. Pay-as-you-go cloud hosting plans allow users to pay only for the services they use, while dedicated

Dedicated hosting plans require users to pay the full plan price even though they are not using majority of resources. The elastic cloud framework manages virtual servers, caches web pages, and synchronizes webpages, among other things.

When you host your website in the cloud, it doesn’t matter what platform you use to build it.

The resources increase as cloud computing links many servers. Cloud computing provides you with a high level of uptime, scalability, and a dedicated IP address.

Cloud infrastructure works in a distributed manner. The webpages are replicated on several cloud servers and spread across them, minimizing the risk of data loss. The cloud server most likely saves a website’s web pages on various cloud clusters.

Cloud hosting is ideal for a variety of websites, including blogging websites, portfolios, eCommerce, high-traffic sites, and enterprise-level sites.

When it comes to hosting a website on cloud servers, knowing about cloud hosting isn’t enough. It is necessary to understand the differences between managed and unmanaged cloud hosting.

AWS, DigitalOcean are some of the companies providing cloud infrastructure.

What is DigitalOcean?

DigitalOcean is a cloud computing company based in New York City that has data centers all over the world. Developers may use DigitalOcean’s cloud services to deploy and scale applications that run on several computers at the same time

There are various features of cloud hosting listed below:

Pooling of Resources

Cloud hosting with a multi-tenant model offers computing services and infrastructure to multiple clients. Physical and virtual server services are allocated and reassigned in response to customer demand.


Scalability is a function of the cloud infrastructure that allows customers to scale up and down resources according to their needs.

Safety is important

The cloud provides a level of protection that prevents data breaches. With cloud computing, the data is never compromised or lost because it is distributed through many virtual servers. Penetration testing, virtual private networks (VPNs), obfuscation and firewalls are all examples of cloud protection.


You just pay for what you use. The payment structure is not the same as with conventional hosting.

What is managed cloud hosting?

Managed cloud hosting involves having the infrastructure as well as many manageable facilities. Your cloud hosting company is in charge of cloud configuration, storage, design, and architecture, among other things. This type offers enhanced protection and keeps an eye on the site for cyber threats.

Now that we’ve looked at cloud hosting in-depth, we need to know who the best managed cloud hosting company is.

About MilesWeb

MilesWeb is India’s leading web hosting company that offers shared, VPS, dedicated, and AWS cloud, managed DigitalOcean hosting. About 28,000 satisfied customers can be found all over the world. Data centers are located in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, India, Singapore, and Australia. They are the most dependable in the web hosting industry because they provide customer service 24*7.

Managed DigitalOcean cloud services by MilesWeb offers you the following:

Managed Cloud Hosting by MilesWeb

MilesWeb provides fully managed cloud hosting plans. The certified professionals of the company are available 24×7 to manage your cloud server.

  • Cloud server setup
  • Control panel installation and configuration
  • Third-party software installation
  • Linux security and hardening
  • CMS and Web application installation
  • CSF Firewall installation and configuration
  • Optimizing web server and fine-tuning
  • Database optimization
  • Network fine-tuning
  • Server performance fine-tuning
  • Security optimization
  • Kernel patch updates
  • Malware, virus detection and protection
  • Installation of security patches and updates
  • Spam protection
  • Database and Website security
  • Protection against server blacklisting
  • Malware removal
  • Cloud server performance optimization
  • Cloud server migration
  • rDNS setup
  • Hardware and network related issues
  • Unlimited ticket, emails and chat

MilesWeb does not charge for any kind of maintenance. You only pay the charges shown on the website. Timely OS updates are done to maintain the security of your website. The company handles the entire cloud server management for any kind of complicated hosting environment. Your hosting account is managed for network, uptime and security.

With other hosting partners it is a DIY but MilesWeb provides you the finest managed cloud hosting services for your cloud infrastructure.

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The Role of Simulation in Robotics




The power of simulation has revolutionized the robotic industry, supporting the design, analysis,

and results in different research and development areas. Simulation is the process of designing

a virtual model of an actual or theoretical physical system, describing its environment, and

analyzing its output while varying the designated parameters. The capability of creating a digital

twin and reconstructing its surroundings without the need for a physical prototype allows

companies to save time and money on their concept models. Now, institutions no longer need to

manufacture expensive, time-consuming iterative prototypes, but instead, they can generate

digital data representing their desired system. Simulation allows us to study the structure,

characteristics, and function of a robotic system at different levels of detail, each having different


Robotic simulation provides proof of concept and design, ensuring that flaws do not get built into

automated systems. They can be used to analyze kinematics and dynamics of robotic

manipulators, construct different control algorithms, design mechanical structures, and organize

production lines. The simulation advancements allow physically accurate digital copies to be

built and operate in real-time ray and path tracing for true-to-life visualization without

compromising accuracy.

Robotic Simulations Across Industries

Robotic simulation has allowed the production of more customizable, compatible, accurate, and

automated products. The automobile industry can leverage these attributes through

multi-physics packages that support ground vehicle modeling, simulation, and visualization. One

such library is Chrono::Vehicle developed by members of the University of Wisconsin-Madison

and the University of Parma and funded by the U.S. Army. This software package is designed in

a modular manner, using a template-based approach to allow rapid prototyping of existing and

new vehicle configurations. It also has large-scale vehicle-terrain-environment ability for

multi-physics and multi-scale simulation. Although vehicles can be complex with intricate

connectivity and precise design configurations, their systems have relatively standard

topologies. These predefined frameworks allow the developers to design modeling tools based

on a modular approach. The modules represent the vehicle’s subsystems such as suspension,

steering, and driveline.The template defines the essential modeling elements such as bodies,

joints, and force elements. The template parameters are the hardpoints, joint directions, inertial

properties, and contact material properties.

Several studies can be performed with this modular approach such as standard mobility testing on rigid flat terrain, double lane change with a path-follower driver system, and constant-speed controller to find the maximum speed at which the vehicle can safely perform the maneuver. The simulations also include a step-climbing validation test for determining the maximum obstacle height that a tracked vehicle can accomplish from rest.

Chrono::Vehicle can simulate fording maneuvers and sloshing of liquids in

vehicle-mounted tanks. Autonomous vehicles can also be simulated such as a convoy of cars

equipped with virtual LiDAR, GPS, and IMU sensors that allow the fleet to follow the car ahead.

In 2000, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved surgical robotic devices for

human surgery. Because robotic surgery requires a different set of surgical skills from

conventional surgery, robotic surgery simulators allow surgeons to be properly trained to safely

adopt this innovative technology. Robotic simulators that can provide automated, objective

performance assessments are useful for training surgeons and provides a safe environment for

learning outside of the operating room. Such a device was developed by 3D Systems, formerly

Simbionix, called the RobotiX mentor which is a stand-alone simulator of the da Vinci robot, a

surgical system that allows surgeons to perform complex minimally invasive surgeries. Its

software replicates the functions of the robotic arms and the surgical space. It offers complete

surgeries and 53 procedure-specific exercises in a fully simulated anatomical environment with

tissue behavior. This gives students a reproducible environment while providing complications

and emergent situations similar to those that might occur during a real operation.

Overall, robotic simulation is viewed as a modality that allows physicians to perform increasingly

complex minimally invasive procedures while enhancing patient safety. All in all, robotic simulation makes it possible to design robots, rapidly test algorithms, perform regression testing, and train systems using realistic scenarios. Data collection is relatively inexpensive, simulation can procedurally generate scenes, and state information is trivially available. Reduced learning on the real robot is also highly desirable as simulations are frequently faster than real-time while safer for both the robot and its environment.

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