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How do they make Nitrous Oxide?

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Before we get to how they make nitrous oxide, we first got to learn what is Nitrous Oxide? Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, N2O, or nos, or nangs is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature or the temperature that adapted to its surroundings, it is a colorless non-flammable gas, that gives off a slight metallic scent and taste. At elevated temperatures or above normal oral temperature, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, more so present in surgery and dentistry, for its anesthetic and pain numbing effects. Better known by the masses as “laughing gas”, it received this name due to the euphoric effects a person experiences after inhaling it, with this property that has led to its use as a anesthetic. You can readily buy laughing gas but only for culinary purposes.

It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Though it became popular as an anesthetic, nitrous oxide has so many other uses. It increases internal combustion engine power, serves as an oxidizer in experiments including chemicals and rockets, and it also acts as a propellant for foods including cooking spray and whipped cream, and has multiple uses in medicine showing that it has its flexibility in uses as a chemical compound.

After learning what is Nitrous Oxide, How does someone produce said gas? The basic and safe method to make nitrous oxide at home or in a small lab was discovered by a chemist named Humphry Davy. Davy discovered that through heating ammonium nitrate, it decomposes into nitrous oxide and water vapor:

NH4NO3 (s) → 2 H2O (g) + N2O (g)

While simple, it’s crucial to gently adjust the heat of ammonium nitrate between 170 °C to 240 °C (338 °F to 464 °F). Exceeding the maximum temperature leads to rapid decomposition and the glass container to shatter due to reaching its breaking point. Use small amounts of ammonium nitrate then control the temperature with a thermometer just to be safe.

1. Place a small amount of ammonium nitrate in a test tube. Cap the test tube with a one-hole stopped. Insert plastic or glass tubing into the hole and run it into a hot water bath. The water needs to be hot because nitrous oxide dissolves in cold water, reducing the amount collected. Collect the bubbles in an inverted jar. This setup for collecting gases is called a pneumatic trough. It condenses water produced by the reaction and removes impurities, like smoke.

2. Once you’ve set up the equipment, slowly heat the ammonium nitrate. You can do this over a flame or burner. Apply heat so that it does not exceed the maximum temperature and so it produces gas bubbles at the rate of one to two bubbles per second.

3. Stop heating the ammonium nitrate before all of it has decomposed. This helps prevent overheating. Turn off the heat and disconnect the tubing from the collection jar so that water won’t flow up into it. Cover the container before turning it upright, so you won’t lose the gas. You can seal the container while it is inverted or simply cover it with a flat sheet of plastic or glass before turning it over. The gas in the container is nitrous oxide, plus smaller amounts of other nitrogen oxides, such as nitric oxide and nitrogen monoxide. Exposure to air oxidizes the nitric oxide to form nitrous oxide.

This procedure is commonly used for commercial preparation of nitrous oxide, with acid and base treatments to further purify the gas.

In 1772, another method for making nitrous oxide was discovered by Joseph Priestley and he became the first person to synthesize nitrous oxide. Priestly collected the gas produced by sprinkling nitric acid over iron filings. While an effective method, this method is better attempted in a lab by scientists because nitric acid should be used under a fume hood, with proper gear to avoid accidents. Another method to make nitrous oxide in the home or lab is to heat a mixture of sodium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. Again, collect the gas using a pneumatic trough. Heating this mixture is even safer than decomposing ammonium nitrate.

2 NaNO3 + (NH4)2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2 N2O+ 4 H2O

The chemical reaction between urea, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid also produces nitrous oxide.

2 (NH2)2CO + 2 HNO3+ H2SO4 → 2 N2O + 2 CO2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2H2O

Here are tips to prepare nitrous oxide safely:

– Never exceed the temperature when heating ammonium nitrate over 240 °C or 464 °F.

– Turn of the heating apparatus before the last bit of ammonium nitrate has decomposed.

– Use the highest purity ammonium nitrate available for the safest method. Pure ammonium nitrate is more stable than ammonium nitrate with impurities.

– Perform the project in a lab or in a well-ventilated area if at home. Overexposure can be fatal.

Due to the dangers difficulty involved in making nitrous oxide yourself you will most likely want to just buy nitrous oxide from an online seller and have it delivered to you.

Read more about whipped cream chargers here or here and their benefits.

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Best Paraphrasing Tool to improve writing

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Paraphrasing Tool

Whether you are writing web content, a business report, or an academic article, your transcript needs to be unique. There is nothing wrong with getting your ideas from a variety of sources, but avoid plagiarism at all costs or refer to original content. The paraphrasing tool can help you get rid of all these problems and still generate comprehensive and unique content for you. This article covers the paraphrasing process, its use cases, and the best paraphrasing tools.

What is paraphrase?

Paraphrasing means rewriting any content in a different way, preserving its original meaning. Sometimes a paraphrase can also be used to change the order of words in a sentence. Although ineffective writers often don’t spell sentences correctly, you can paraphrase them to underline the necessary part of the sentence.

Which one is the best free Paraphrasing Tool?

Are you looking for a paraphraser with a minimalist interface that can be used for your daily needs? Then it’s time to take advantage of Paraphrase Online. Moreover, this tool is available for free.

The solution’s web interface has two sections, Text Before and Text After – type or paste your text into the “Text Before” field. Here you can convert to 1000 words at one time. Click the paraphrase button between the two boxes and the tool will deliver the rewritten text in the text after the box.

If you are not satisfied with the paraphrase, you can click on any word to edit it yourself, using a synonym or keeping the original text.

Conclusion

Paraphraser from Paraphrase Online is a great free paraphrasing tool if you don’t want to spend money generating new and unique content from existing ones. This AI-based paraphrasing platform retains the original meaning of the text while modifying the sentence structure.

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“Red Flags”: What to Pay Attention to During the Interview

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So you have a job interview: it may or may not be your dream job. If you’re lucky, you’ll know it’s not right for you before you accept it. Sometimes it’s obvious, but most of the time it’s hard to make the right decision. Here are the top most questionable things to watch out for in an interview.

Late or Unprepared Interviewer

If an interviewer is late, unprepared, or constantly changing his or her appointment schedule – his or her company probably doesn’t value employee time.

You may find that an HR professional will make you wait 40 minutes and then ask you to reschedule the interview. Or during the interview, you will realize that no one has read your CV before calling for a meeting. All of this indicates that if the job does get hired, no one will respect you.

Not Answering Your Questions

The interview is a chance to learn more about the company. So if the interviewer can’t answer your questions, think twice before accepting the job.

At the meeting, ask the following questions:

  • What do you personally like most about this company?
  • What makes you a good supervisor?
  • What do your coworkers and subordinates love you for?
  • What does the career path look like from this position?
  • How many years does it take before an employee is promoted?

You can ask more individual questions, like if it’s possible to gamble with casino offers or what services are included in your insurance. If the answers are vague and unclear, or if you’re redirected with questions to another professional, you are being tricked.

Vague Responsibilities

If the duties of a position are not clearly defined, it could signal a broader structural dysfunction in the company.

If someone says, “We’ll figure out your responsibilities as we go along,” they probably mean, “We’ll load you up with everything in the world until you burn out.” The lack of clear responsibilities also means that the employer won’t be able to assess the quality of your work. So you can forget about moving up the career ladder.

Unprofessional Behavior

Negative or inappropriate comments about employees, especially former ones, should be alarming.

An inappropriate remark from an interviewer or any other company employee is a red flag. If you encounter disrespectful behavior directed at you or anyone else, take note that this is normal for the team.

Chaotic Processes

If the hiring process is disorganized and confusing, it’s probably not the only one at the company. If you accept a job offer, you may encounter these situations later in life:

  • You won’t be given deadlines and then be accused of being late on tasks.
  • A supervisor will send you to one task and then tell you to quickly change locations.
  • You will be assigned tasks of equal importance at the same time.
  • Ten minutes before handing over an important project, the supervisor will make revisions.
  • Because of the stilted approval process, work will drag on for weeks or even months.

Stunted Hiring Process

On average, the hiring process takes 23.8 days. If you wait longer between interviews, you’re probably dealing with an inefficient or overburdened organization. An unnecessarily protracted process can also be a red flag.

High Employee Turnover

High employee turnover is a sign of dissatisfied employees or a toxic team. True, not always: in a young company you will not see “old-timers”, all employees will be new.

Clarify whether you are hired to replace another person. And, if so, find out the reason why he left the company.

Voluminous Unpaid Test Assignment

The practice of doing a test assignment is popular today. In this way, the employer tests a candidate’s skills before hiring him, and this is normal. However, such a task should not be a full-fledged project, the work on which will take several working days.

If you understand that the task is too time-consuming, ask for a fee. If you’re turned down, we recommend that you stop communicating with your employer. Your work can be used for the benefit of the company, but you won’t get paid or hired.

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7 Key Roles of Project Manager in Construction:

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project manager in construction

Construction projects are complex and dynamic environments. Construction projects continue to grow in size, scope, and complexity as markets expand and technologies improve. To manage these larger and more complex construction projects, project management roles have become increasingly specialized. Project managers need to be able to manage multiple specialists at the same time—allocating resources appropriately and monitoring their performance—while coordinating tasks across a variety of team members. Operating in such a dynamic environment requires project managers to adopt new methods for managing both people and processes. Construction project managers must not only emphasize planning but also flexibility when dealing with constantly changing conditions. This blog will provide an overview of construction project manager roles to help you determine if it’s the right role for you.

Define Scope and Timing:

The first step in managing any project is to clearly define the scope of the project. Scope refers to what will be delivered—the project end results. It is the description of the work that needs to be done. The project scope will typically be described in some type of project documentation, such as a project charter, statement of work, or project specifications. The project manager must work with project stakeholders to define the scope and timing of a project. Scope and timing are impacted by various factors, including the availability of resources, regulatory requirements, procurement cycles, and contractual obligations. Thus, project scope management is dynamic and will require frequent adjustments as the project progresses. The project manager must keep the team informed of any changes to scope and timing. In some cases, the project stakeholders will need to approve changes to scope and timing.

Monitor and Control Performance:

Scope and timing are impacted by project performance. In many construction projects, contractors are responsible for meeting the contract requirements. As the project manager, you will monitor and review contractor performance. You will do this through various measures, including quality assurance, testing, and auditing work as it progresses. You’ll also track contractor performance through change orders and issues log. Change orders are a formal mechanism for contractors to submit change requests. Changes requested can include everything from a simple delay due to weather to a need for more resources. As the project manager aware of the project management organizational structure, you will manage the contractor performance process by reviewing and approving change orders, addressing issues raised in the issues log, and communicating changes to the project stakeholders. 

Coordinate Communication:

As the project manager, you will manage the flow of communication throughout the project team. Communication is the lifeblood of any construction project, and the quality and quantity of communication can have significant effects on project performance. A lack of communication, especially during change, can slow down project progress. Over-communication, on the other hand, can cause information overload and distract project participants from their primary tasks. Project managers can help manage project communications through tools and techniques such as meeting planning, team composition, and virtual collaboration. Meeting planning refers to planning and scheduling meetings with project stakeholders. Team composition refers to selecting the right people for the right roles on the project team. Virtual collaboration refers to using technology to facilitate communication. You can start working towards your career by taking the right education, such as mba project management distance education or a postgraduate diploma in project management.

Manage Risk:

Construction projects are often described as risky business. Risk refers to the likelihood of something occurring, such as a contractor needing more time to complete the project or a regulatory agency imposing requirements not originally anticipated. Project managers can use risk management techniques to manage the project risks that are most likely to occur. Project risk management techniques include identifying risks, assessing risks, and developing risk responses. Risk identification involves developing a list of risks that could impact the project. Risk assessment involves assessing the probability of risks occurring and their potential impact on the project. Risk response refers to developing strategies to deal with the risks. Project managers should also consider their personal risk. Managing personal risk includes recognizing your own areas of weakness and taking steps to mitigate them. 

Determine Resourcing Requirements:

The timing and availability of resources can have significant effects on the project scope and timing. Resources can include everything from contractors to materials. Project managers must work with procurement specialists to acquire the necessary resources. The project manager must also manage the availability of resources by ensuring that resources are scheduled when they are needed. This includes working with scheduling specialists to develop the appropriate timeline for resources.

Estimate Cost and Duration:

The project manager plays a critical role in estimating the project cost and duration. The project manager must first break down the project into smaller components and assign appropriate resources to each. Project managers then use cost and duration estimating techniques, such as cost planning, resource scheduling, and earned value management. Estimating cost and duration can be challenging, especially for complex projects. Project managers need to keep a close eye on the variance between estimated and actual costs and durations throughout the project. This will help them identify any potential problems early.

Wrap up:

Construction project managers are responsible for managing complex projects. This requires a broad range of skills and competencies, such as the ability to collaborate with stakeholders, manage multiple tasks simultaneously, and anticipate emerging issues. Project managers need to be able to balance the need for planning with the need for flexibility. They also need to be able to identify and address project risks while keeping stakeholders informed of any changes in scope or timing. Now that you have a better idea of what it means to be a construction project manager, you can decide if this is the right career path for you. 

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How to Avoid Supply Chain Issues?

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supply chain Issues

Supply chain management is complicated and ever-changing. Factors such as digitization, increased competition, and shifting consumer demands are increasing the complexity of supply chains and demanding more of those working within them. The constant change makes it difficult for companies to keep up with all the new regulations, KPIs, and processes. But if you work through your supply chain woes and find a way to streamline operations, you’ll see profound benefits in the form of reduced costs, faster response times, higher efficiency, and improved loyalty from suppliers. In this article we will discuss what a successful supply chain management looks like from different perspectives: that of suppliers, consumers, logistics providers and even competitors. These insights will help you understand what needs to change in your company’s supply chain for it to succeed moving forward.

What Does a Successful Supply Chain Management Look Like?

In this comprehensive guide we’ll cover everything you need to know about successful supply chain management. We’ll start by exploring some of the key issues in supply chain management and see how these can be tackled successfully. We’ll then move on to discuss how you can identify and resolve issues in your own company’s supply chain. Finally, we’ll finish by discussing how you can implement successful supply chain management strategies in your own business.

Key Issues in Supply Chain Management:

Increased complexity: 

As the nature of business changes, so too does the complexity of supply chain management. Digitalization, increased competition, and shifting consumer demands are all increasing the complexity of supply chains. This means more time is required to plan and execute projects, which in turn means increased costs. The complexity may be reduced if an agile supply chain is planned.

Increased regulatory burdens:

As emerging markets become more developed, so too are the regulations that companies must adhere to in order to operate successfully. New regulations, such as the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), are requiring companies to reevaluate their data management policies. Increased data management requirements, along with new data security legislation, is making it more challenging to successfully operate a business. 

Cost-cutting efforts: 

As competition intensifies and digitalization continues to penetrate the business landscape, companies are struggling to keep pace. This is leading to an increased focus on cost-cutting initiatives in order to remain competitive. 

Partnering for success: 

As the need for effective collaboration between companies increases, so does the demand for partnerships. This is making it more important than ever for companies to identify and work with capable partners that can help them successfully operate their supply chains. 

Effective execution: 

Successful execution is key to a successful supply chain. This means that companies are able to effectively manage their resources and go to market with the correct strategy, and the strategy may be designed by a well-qualified mba in logistics and supply chain management professional.

Supplier Perspective: Streamlined Operations for Faster Procurement:

One of the most important steps a company can take when it comes to supply chain management is streamlining operations. This will require your company to identify where in your supply chain bottlenecks are occurring and work to resolve them. Once this is done, your company will be able to operate more efficiently. For example, once it’s determined that slow freight is the problem, your company will work to resolve it by improving the tracking and documentation processes. This will help your company to improve the timeliness of delivery, which will ultimately allow it to increase sales. Suppliers will also benefit from streamlined supply chain management. One way to do this is by leveraging technology to improve collaboration between your company and its suppliers. This will allow your company to identify where in its process delays are occurring. You can also use technology to streamline the procurement process by having a centralized sourcing platform that manages the entire procurement lifecycle, which is covered during an online logistics certification or supply chain certificate program. This will allow you to manage your suppliers’ profiles, such as their price and availability, and keep track of their status throughout the process. This will significantly reduce the time it takes to source new suppliers.

Consumer Perspective: Customer-Focussed Branding and Advertising:

The way that you manage your supply chain will play a huge role in your brand reputation and bottom line. If you are successfully operating your supply chain, you will be able to deliver products to your customers on time and without any stock-outs. This will result in increased brand loyalty and a positive reputation with your customers. As consumers become more discerning, they will be looking for more from the brands they buy from. In order to maintain customer loyalty and gain more sales, companies will need to do more than just make a product. As a manufacturer, you will need to make sure that your packaging and other marketing materials help to convey your brand story. This includes the type of imagery and copy you use to communicate your brand message.

Logistics Provider Perspective: Proven Base, Realtime Data, and Predictive Tracking:

Many supply chain problems are rooted in bad execution. Successful supply chain management makes sure that every step from design to delivery is executed with precision. This includes the time that it takes to create and deliver your products. One key way to improve execution time is to leverage technology. This can be done in several ways, such as using a centralized supply chain management system. If you are looking to minimize the time it takes to create your products, you should also look at leveraging 3D printing technology. In order to create high-quality products that are beautiful and durable, you should also consider investing in a CNC router.

Competitor Perspective: Collaborative partnerships to forge mutually beneficial supply chains:

To remain competitive in your industry, you will need to constantly innovate in order to provide your customers with new and exciting products. But in order to make this happen, you will need to partner with your suppliers. This will allow you to procure the necessary components required to create these new products. This can provide a mutually beneficial partnership for your company and your suppliers. You will want to partner with suppliers that have high-quality components, such as durable and low-cost materials. When partnering with suppliers, you will also want to look at their reputation with the industry. This will help you to identify the best possible partners.

Conclusion:

Much like any other type of marketing, supply chain management requires a mix of creativity, strategy, and execution to be successful. Just like in other forms of marketing, though, it’s important to be mindful of the challenges that lie ahead.

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How the Islamic Financial System Works on the Basis of Shariah?

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the Islamic financial system works on the basis of

The Islamic financial system works on the basis of principles and standards that are based on Islamic laws. Thus, in order to understand how the Islamic Financial system functions, it becomes necessary to understand what these principles are. The principles include: The article explains the different principles of Islamic finance and their implications. 

What Does the Islamic Financial System Prohibit and Allow?

As we know, there are certain Islamic finance principles, which are derived from Islamic laws. These principles must be adhered to by all the financial institutions in the Islamic economy. The Islamic financial system prohibits the following in its financial dealings. 

1. Profit and Loss Sharing:

In the conventional financial system, the borrower and the lender are strictly differentiated. But in Islamic banking and finance, there is no such division. The roles of the lender and the borrower are shared by the two parties involved in the transaction. Thus, the lender is also a shareholder of the borrower. In the Islamic financial system, all the contracts are profit and loss sharing agreements. This means that both the parties involved in the transaction share the profits and losses associated with the same. The lender (shareholder) of the borrower gets a share of the profits earned by the borrower. Similarly, the borrower (shareholder) has to bear the losses incurred by the company. Thus, Islamic finance aims to create a partnership in the financial system, using instruments like al murabahah contract

2. Prohibition of Riba (Interest):

In the conventional financial system, the lending of money is accompanied by a fixed interest. The Islamic financial system, on the other hand, totally prohibits the charging of interest. Thus, in the conventional financial system, the interest rate is fixed for the entire tenure of the loan. In the Islamic financial system, on the other hand, the payment of interest is not fixed. Rather, it varies with the market. In normal circumstances, it is expected that the borrower pays the lender an amount, equivalent to the interest that he would have paid in the conventional financial system. The parties involved in the transaction fix the rate of return on the money lent at a mutually acceptable rate. 

3. Prohibition of Gharar:

This is one of the principles of Islamic finance that is common with the conventional financial system. It means that the financial transactions must be backed by the tangible assets of the borrower. Thus, in the conventional financial system, the lender gets assurance that the borrower has sufficient funds to lend. Similarly, if the lender is an institution, it has to follow the same principles. Thus, in the Islamic financial system, the lender has to get assurance that the borrower has sufficient funds to repay the loan. The lender has to follow the same principles and back the loan with assets. 

4. Prohibition of Gambling:

This is a principle that is common with the conventional financial system. It means that the financial institutions cannot indulge in gambling. Thus, in the conventional financial system, the financial institutions cannot indulge in gambling, or engage in transactions that are considered to be gambling. This rule is also applicable in the Islamic financial system. Islamic finance has certain restrictions that are not there in the conventional financial system. Thus, it prohibits financial institutions from investing in industries such as liquor, insurance, and casinos etc. 

5. No Investment in Prohibited Industries:

Islamic financial institutions cannot invest in industries that are prohibited by Islamic law. They cannot invest in industries, such as liquor, tobacco and gambling etc. Islamic finance prohibits financial institutions from investing in such industries. This is because these industries are strictly prohibited by Islamic law. Islamic finance has certain restrictions that are not there in the conventional financial system. Thus, it prohibits financial institutions from investing in industries such as alcohol, insurance, casinos etc. Islamic finance has certain restrictions that are not there in the conventional financial system. Thus, it prohibits financial institutions from investing in industries such as alcohol, insurance, casinos etc.

LAST WORDS:

Islamic banking is a rapidly growing segment of the global financial sector. This form of banking, which focuses on the financing of businesses and social projects in accordance with Islamic principles, is often used to meet the needs of the Islamic market. In the past decade, the global market for Islamic banking has grown at a rapid pace. There has been a steady rise in demand for Islamic financial services in a variety of markets. In many countries, there is a shortage of qualified professionals who are able to work in the sector. This has made graduates with an Islamic banking and finance diploma, which is offered by the international centre for education in Islamic finance is increasingly sought-after by employers.

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