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Everything You Need to Know When It Comes to Credit Card Processing



Credit card payment processing is a multi-step process required to make a monetary transaction using a credit card. The financial transaction can be done at a store in person, via mobile phone, online, or by mail. 

When a customer uses the best credit card in India, swiping the card at a point of sale or entering the details of the online credit card is only the first step in the credit card payment process. Multiple operations take place in the background which ensures the payment transaction gets completed quickly and securely. 

Credit Card Processing

Credit card processing begins with a purchase made physically or online using a credit card and is completed when the transaction is approved. The process consists of multiple steps and involves several parties. 

The business owner should have a merchant account at the acquiring bank to be eligible for accepting credit card payments. In addition, business owners require a payment processor in order to process card payments through a merchant account to their bank accounts. 

Entities Involved in Credit Card Processing

As stated above, there are multiple entities that result in successful credit card processing. These parties are:

  • Business owner: The business owner is the merchant that accepts a credit card payment from the customer. 
  • Cardholder: The cardholder is the customer who uses the credit card to shop for products and services from the merchant. 
  • Issuing bank: It is the financial institution that has provided the customer’s credit card. The customer’s account with the issuing bank is debited for every transaction he makes. 
  • Acquiring bank: It is the business owner’s acquirer and manages their bank account. The acquiring bank accepts and approves the customer’s payment data and passes on the information to the issuing banking entity. The acquiring bank is responsible for the business owner’s payments and ensures the efficiency of the payment processor. 
  • Bank card associations: Bank associations are bodies that facilitate transactions between the issuing bank and the merchant acquirer. The bank card associations give a virtual payment framework using which payments can be made possible. 
  • Payment processor: It is the connector between the financial entities and the merchant involved in the payment processing. The payment processor is responsible for the technological interface that handles the credit card payment data and sends it to the entities involved in the payment process. 
  • Payment gateway: It is the software that receives the payment card’s data and forwards it to the payment processor. 

Steps Involved in Credit Card Payment Processing

Step 1: Authorisation: It is a process through which the amount to be paid on a payment method is verified. The stages involved in the authorisation process are:

  1. The credit card holder enters his credit card number to make a purchase. A payment gateway is used to make an online payment while a point-of-sale system is used to make an in-store payment.
  2. The payment processor gets the authorisation request from the business owner. 
  3. The payment processor sends the authorisation request to the issuing bank via a bank card association. 
  4. The authorisation request that the bank receives contains crucial information like the card expiry date and the credit card CVV.
  5. The bank approves the transaction if the transaction is authorised, there are sufficient funds in the customer’s account, and there is a sufficient credit limit on the credit card. If these criteria are not met, the bank rejects the transaction. 
  6. After the bank approves the transaction, the money gets transferred to the merchant’s account. The card association, the acquiring bank, and the business owner receive information regarding the approval or rejection of a transaction. 

Step 2: Settlement and funding: The last stage of credit card processing is the settlement stage where the business owner receives the money that the customer has paid for the goods or services purchased. 

The business owner sends batches of payments to the payment processor and it is forwarded to the card association. The card association notifies the issuing bank and it debits the money from the customer’s account. The funds sent by the bank get credited to the merchant’s acquirer account at the acquiring bank and the interchange fees are cut at this point. 

Credit Card Payment Processing Time

Credit card payments typically take 24-72 hours to get processed. Credit card payments are received and processed in batches by the payment processor and other parties involved, which affects the processing time. Generally, credit card payments done online or over the phone are processed sooner than credit card payments done over the mail. You can apply for the best credit card in India when looking for a smooth credit card payment process. 

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How to Get Money After Being Scammed by Claiming Compensation



If you have experienced a financial scam, you should be able to file for compensation in a small claims court or a criminal case. However, this process isn’t always straightforward. You must have good faith to win a claim. If the company you’re suing has been dishonest or fraudulent, you will want to prove this with evidence from the small claims court.

Bank of Scotland

A Bank of Scotland scam compensation scheme has been launched following the collapse of the company’s small business unit, HBOS. The bank was involved in a complex scheme that robbed hundreds of small businesses of money and left them in deep financial trouble. The fraud took place before Lloyds bought HBOS in 2009, and victims of HBOS can now claim PS3m in compensation.


The bank set up a compensation scheme in 2017, but has faced numerous criticisms, including from lawmakers and victims. The speed of the collection collected from a solicitor for compensation is a process and the amount being offered has also been criticized. A new set of measures will be announced by the Foskett Panel in the coming days. These measures aim to prevent similar scams in the future and ensure that victims get the right compensation.


A recent report has highlighted the issue of APP fraud and has urged banks to make more information available on how to protect customers from the pitfalls of these scams. It has also called on banks to make their safeguarding procedures and fraud detection processes better. 


The study also highlighted the fact that over 74% of Barclays customers had suffered losses as a result of APP fraud ( in the first two months of 2019. In a response, the bank has signed up to a code of conduct. The investigation focuses on 36 RMBS deals and involves more than $31 billion in subprime and Alt-A mortgage loans that were securitized by Barclays.


The investigation revealed that the bank deliberately misrepresented key characteristics of these loans to investors and rating agencies. As a result, the loans were significantly less creditworthy than they were reported. These borrowers defaulted at very high rates early in the life of the deals, and the value of the mortgaged properties was significantly lower than they were originally stated.


Barclays warns that fraudsters use psychological techniques to make people fall for their scams. They use techniques to convince victims to believe they are an authority, use pressure tactics, and prey on human nature. They also pretend to be trusted sources and make their victims believe they are receiving something in return.

Metro Bank

Metro Bank has issued a warning about spoofing scams. This type of scam involves impersonating a trusted source, such as a bank, in order to defraud people. The bank says it is taking steps to protect Britons and customers. Metro has highlighted some of the most common types of scams, and has launched a compensation process.


Phone number spoofing is a common scam, with scammers posing as the National Crime Agency, Department for Work and Pensions, and other government departments which you can learn about here. In order to avoid being scammed, customers should never give out personal information or passwords to unknown numbers. Scammers are also increasingly using website spoofing, where they mimic a trusted site.


Metro Bank has issued a warning to consumers about this growing trend. The banks have also joined a fraud reporting hotline to combat the problem. Customers can call 159 to report any fraud. Currently, HSBC, Metro Bank, First Direct, and Santander all participate in the scheme. The scam hotline is available to anyone in the UK and is free to call.



If you’ve lost money through a NatWest/RBS scam, you’re not alone. More than half of all complaints about bank fraud have been rejected by RBS, part of the NatWest banking group. Thankfully, compensation for this type of fraud is possible, and there are some steps you can take to make sure you’re protected.


The UK financial giant, once known as the Royal Bank of Scotland, pled guilty to defrauding counterparties, and will pay $35 million in fines. The British financial heavyweight has also been placed under probation for violating a non-prosecution agreement, and the UK government has described it as a repeat offender. It has admitted to manipulating prices by placing large orders, which were later canceled and used to make money.


In addition to these new measures, RBS is taking a more proactive approach to protect consumers. It has pledged to improve its fraud detection and act more quickly if a customer makes a payment that doesn’t match their records. This is a positive step for consumers, but it won’t prevent all types of bank transfer fraud.

Starling Bank, Ulster Bank and Virgin Money

If you are a victim of an APP scam, you can apply for compensation from the bank that you used. Under the UK Financial Conduct Authority’s Authorized Push Payment Scam Code, banks must protect their customers and reimburse victims of fraud. They must also publish their fraud reimbursements data.


The UK banking industry introduced the system to prevent these scams, and many companies have jumped on board. The scheme will protect consumers by checking the name on the account. The aim is to prevent fraud by ensuring payments go to the right recipients. The UK’s biggest banks have committed to this system, which will ensure that payments are made to the right people.


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Types Of Term Life Insurance You Should Know About



Most people may be well aware of the fact that there are at least a few different types of life insurance plans. However, there are still a few people who may be in the market for a term plan but may not be aware that there are a few different types of term life insurance policies available.

As a consumer, it is ideal for you to know your options and what they have to offer. For example, if you are looking for life insurance, knowing all the types and the sub-types is crucial. You may not want, need, or get all of these plans, but knowing your options can help you sift through the choices on offer, shortlist the ones that suit you right, and pick the one that seems apt for you.

Hence, it is important for consumers to know sub-types of term insurance plans as well. Before we dive into understanding these, let’s take a look at what term insurance is.

Basics of Term Insurance

Term plans are one of the most basic life insurance plans available today. They are known to be simple, hassle-free, accessible, as well as affordable. Let’s understand what this means. Why are these plans termed ‘simple’? It is probably owing to their design. The most fundamental benefit offered by term insurance plans is the death benefit.

This is the benefit that your nominee may be able to claim in the event of an occurrence that is covered by the policy. After they make the claim, they will be paid an amount that may be equivalent to the sum assured you have decided for the policy, and for which you have been paying premiums.

Apart from the death benefit, there is rarely any uniformity as to what term plans should offer. Most insurance providers will offer some additional benefits alongside, depending on the sub-type of plan chosen.

Moreover, there are riders available with term plans. Riders are add-on features available with plans that you can pay for. Some of the common term insurance riders include waiver of premium, accidental death, accidental permanent disability, income benefit, and more.

Another aspect these plans may be well-known for is accessibility and affordability. They are deemed accessible not only because they are available online as well as offline, but also because of their affordability. The affordability aspect is probably because of the simplified design of these plans.

To sum it up, term plans are an apt choice if what you primarily seek is a life cover and are looking to have a customised plan with a few more additions in the form of benefits or riders.

Term Insurance Plan Types

Once you have decided a term life insurance plan is what you seek, it is time to understand the various term plan types. Let’s take a look at the type of term insurance plans available in India.

  • Level term insurance

This is one of the most basic types of term plans. It is often considered to be the default term insurance plan. You are required to pay regular premiums for this plan and can expect a death benefit. There are no maturity benefits to be earned from this plan.

  • Return of premium term cover

This is the type of term insurance plan that offers a maturity benefit. If the life assured of the policy survives the policy duration, they can expect to earn a survival benefit. This survival or maturity benefit comes in the form of the return of premium, i.e., the premium paid into the plan will be paid back to the policyholder.

  • Increasing term insurance

If you are buying a term plan early in your life and would like the option to have a higher sum assured as your plan nears maturity, increasing term insurance policy may be your option. The increase you can bring about in the plan is predetermined. It allows you to plan for your increasing financial capabilities as well as responsibilities you may have to shoulder in the future.

  • Decreasing term insurance

As the name suggests, it is a plan that offers the opposite of what increasing term insurance has to offer. At a predetermined rate, your sum assured in this plan decreases as the years pass by. It is ideal for people who may have taken a term plan as a security measure to pay off their loans or any such financial obligation.

  • Convertible term insurance

These are the type of term insurance policies that can later be converted into a different type of life insurance. It could be suitable for you if you are currently looking for an affordable life cover but expect financial growth later and would want to switch your plan accordingly.

These were a few types of term insurance plans. Once you know more about what insurance providers have to offer, it would be easier for you to choose what policy suits you best. Make a choice based on your requirements and financial goals.

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How Does the Financial System in the USA Work?




In the USA, all 50 states are formally endowed with autonomous rights in the financial area. They independently draw up, approve, and implement their budgets, which are not included in the country’s federal budget either in terms of income or expenditure. To some extent, they are independent in determining the volume of budgets, the structure of expenses, and income.

Different financial organizations like Payday Depot operate freely according to the laws of each state, and every citizen can benefit from them.

Budgets of the States

The federal government is not empowered to directly control state budgets. State governments do not report to the federation on the state of finances and budgets.

In most states, the head of executive power manages the preparation of the budget. Financial bodies subordinate to them perform this work. Estimates of costs are developed by budget and financial bureaus, and estimates of revenues are developed by tax and other authorities. The draft budget is sent to local legislative bodies.

The largest expenditures of state budgets are expenditures on education – 35%, social security – 13%, health care – 9%, road management, nature protection, housing construction, and communal services.

Local administrative units and functional bodies also have a certain autonomy in approving and implementing their budgets. They are not part of either the federal budget or the US state budget.

The functions of drawing up local budgets are entrusted to the heads of the executive power, and their approval – to representatives of the local legislative power.

More than half of the expenditures of local budgets are related to the financing of public elementary schools. In addition, a significant share of funds is annually allocated to the maintenance of roads, communal and municipal economy, fire protection, medical and other institutions.

Sources of Income

The main source of income for state budgets, as well as the federal budget, is tax revenue. In the post-war years, the role of personal income tax and mandatory contributions to social insurance funds in the composition of tax revenues increased significantly. Today, they make up more than 30%.

Another important source of income is sales tax – 29%. Individual income tax is 17%. The lack of own funds of the states is covered by financial support from the federal budget – 23% of the revenue part and revenues from the budgets of local authorities – 1.5%.

Sources of financing for local budgets include local taxes, revenues from communal services, subsidies from the federal budget and state budgets, and income from the issuance of local loans and lotteries. The main sources of income are local property taxes — their income share is about 29%.

Anyone can see all operations related to tax collection and spending on the websites of state governments and municipalities. It is a generally accepted rule that there are important documents in budget matters to which citizens should have access in America.

The Americans pay special attention to the simplified reports for citizens. They do not contain details but give an overview of the budget in a convenient form with elements of infographics.

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What is Conveyance Deed and its Meaning and  Importance? 




Conveyance Deed and its Meaning

A conveyance deed is a legally binding document that is used to transfer ownership of real estate as part of gifts, trades, leases, and mortgages. Other names for it include gift deed,  exchange deed, and lease deed.

There is a multitude of documentation required when you buy or sell any property. It is necessary to understand these document names and their meanings. Thus, we will talk about the conveyance deed in this article. A conveyance transfers property rights to another person, whereas a deed is a written document.

With this understanding of the CONVEYANCE DEED’S MEANING, let’s examine some of its formats and guidelines.

Conveyance Deed Importance And Types

Conveyance deeds are used as proof in the case of any disputes. It confirms that there are no legal issues with the property. It serves as evidence of ownership of land. This gives the buyer a legal transfer of the property rights.

The seller must attest that there are no untruths or other legal claims against the property.  Before the deed is completed, the mortgage must be paid off if a loan was taken out against the subject property.

Conveyance Deed Importance Is Seen During  Registrations.

The office of the neighborhood sub-registrar is where buyers can get this verified. The precise day on which the buyer will receive possession of the property should be specified in the conveyance deed. The local registrar must see all original documents relating to the property transaction within four months of the deed’s execution to register them. A minimum of two witnesses must sign the deed for it to be valid.

Conveyance Deed Types:

There are different types of conveyance deeds:

  • Mortgage property conveyance deed: This type of deed is used while the property  is mortgaged
  • Freehold property conveyance deed: When a government entity transforms a  property into a freehold property, this kind of conveyance deed is created. ● Leasehold conveyance deed: The conveyance of leasehold property is for leasehold ownership of the real estate. A leasehold property is one where the owner only has access to the interior walls and is prohibited from making any changes to the exterior walls.
  • Relinquishment deed: This type of deed is issued when one individual transfers or releases their rights, titles, or interests to other lawful successors. This frequently happens when there is a transfer of property with common property.
  • Gift deed: A gift deed is one in which the grantor gives the property to the grantee.

Conveyance Deed and its Meaning

Required Documents For Conveyance Deed

One must look into the conveyance deed format and the documents involved while registering.

A transfer deed is drafted on non-judicial stamp paper with the necessary value and registered at the nearby sub-registrar office. The buyer is responsible for paying the post-registration, stamp duty, and registration costs. Stamp duty and registration fees are varied in each state. The requisite paperwork for conveyance deeds are

  • Registered Property Sale Agreement with Seller.
  • Entry mutations/Property card.
  • The revenue department’s location plan and survey strategy.
  • The appropriate authority has approved the layout plot plan and the structure plan.
  • Certificates include the architect certificate, the occupancy certificate, the completion certificate, and the occupancy certificate.
  • Receipt for paying owners.
  • It is necessary to have a power of attorney or a development agreement if the seller signs the contract.
  • Model conveyance documents.

Conveyance Deed Rules And Charges

Conveyance deed new rules are posed on the property holders while delivering their property to others.

The good news for property buyers is that developers have been asked to complete the conveyance deed documentation process after selling all of the apartments and handing over the society.

This implies that tenants no longer need to seek this paper everywhere they go. The cooperative department recently issued an order directing the registrar’s office to require the developers to provide eight different types of paperwork necessary for executing the deed in addition to registering the housing society.

Charges On Conveyance Deed

Property registration involves a considerable amount of stamp duty and registration fees. At the time of a property transaction, the state government imposes stamp duty and registration fees. Conveyance deed charges change depending on the state. The Tamil Nadu Stamp  Duty Act mandates that you pay stamp duty if you have purchased real estate in Tamil  Nadu.

One of the states in India with the highest stamp duties and registration fees is the one in the south. Therefore, buyers of real estate in Tamil Nadu should be prepared to make a sizable payment while registering the property. Typically, a registration fee of roughly 1% of the property’s value is paid.

Who Is In Charge Of Drafting a Conveyance Deed?

As stated earlier, a conveyance deed is legal documentation of a buyer’s authority and ownership transfer. The government has intervened to ensure that this transaction is legitimate. To facilitate this operation, the participation of a lawyer and, in some cases, a real estate agent is essential.

They make it possible for the two parties to draft the deed in an organized style. Because they know the laws and their needs, the above assistance is usually required. The government earns money or revenue from the stamp duty necessary for the charges on this conveyance deed.

A conveyance document is essential to any property sale, lease, or gift transfer. There is a  risk of losing the property if this deed is not completed or registered. As a result, be sure that your conveyance document is recorded.

Let’s Conclude

Following an increase in the number of reported fraudulent confiscations and property transfers in the past, it is critical to have a conveyance deed that legally protects your rights.

The document contains legally binding terms that can be enforced in a court of law. As a  result, a deed must be in writing and signed by both parties.

When it comes to legal difficulties and documentation, you must exercise extraordinary caution; even the smallest error can result in a massive loss.

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SDMC Property Tax Online: Pay South  Delhi Municipal Corporation Property Tax 




SDMC Property Tax Online

While purchasing property or transferring ownership, it is essential to comply with all the legal formalities. One of these is the payment of property tax regularly and on time by the property owner in whose name it is registered. Let us look into the details of property tax and the assessment, calculation, implementation, and payment method of South Delhi  Municipal Corporation’s (SDMC) property tax. SDMC provides various services to the citizens, and in return, it imposes property tax to cover these expenses.

What is Property Tax?

Property tax is also known as municipal tax or house tax. It is imposed on immovable assets or property like houses, rental offices, land, etc. The property owner needs to pay this tax annually. The local municipal authority is responsible for imposing, assessing, and collecting property tax. Property tax differs from state to state and region to region. It covers commercial and residential buildings. It is usually higher for commercial buildings. Thus,  even the person residing in South Delhi Municipal Corporation is required to pay property tax to the authorities regardless of whether it is used by the owner or rented.

SDMC is divided into zones according to which property tax rates are decided: Najafgarh,  West Zone, Central Zone, and South Zone.

Calculation of SDMC Property Tax

The unit area system is adopted by South Delhi Municipal Corporation to calculate the  SDMC property tax. The formula applied to calculate the payable tax amount by the property owner is highlighted below:-

Property tax = The annual value of property x current rate of tax

These terminologies are described below:-

1) The annual value of the property:

This is calculated by SDMC by a formula, which is as follows:-

The annual value of property = Area covered by the property x Unit area value per sure  meter x Occupancy factor x age factor x structure factor x use factor x flat factor

Each terminology used in the above-mentioned formula may be described as. ● Area covered by the property- The total floor area of a property. Unit area value is calculated per square meter.

  • Occupancy Factor- The property is self-occupied by the owner or rented out. ● Age Factor- Newer properties are charged a higher tax rate than older ones. It ranges between 0.5 to 1 on a scale.
  • Structure Factor- It is allotted based on the construction of the property. ● Flat Factor- This is calculated based o the total area covered by the flat. ● Use Factor- Factor assigned to a property based on its usage.

2) The Current Rate of tax:

While calculating the SDMC property tax rate, the SDMC is divided into eight categories depending on the valuation of properties in various localities within it. The category ranges from A to H. The rate of each of these categories varies.

Mentioned below are the highlights of the difference between various categories as of 2021- 2022:

Residential Property Tax Rate

Property Category SDMC Property Tax Rate (in %)
A 12
B 12
C 11

D 11
E 11
F 7
G 7
H 7

Commercial Property Tax Rate

Category of Property SDMC Property Tax Rate- Industrial  Properties (%)
A 15
B 15
C 12
D 12
E 12
F 10
G 10
H 10

How to Pay SDMC Property Tax?

SDMC provides the facility to pay property tax through offline and online methods.

Offline Method of Tax Payment

Taxpayers in South Delhi may visit ITZ cash counters to pay their taxes. However, keep the  following points in mind before visiting the cash counters:

  • Payment may be done through debit or credit card, cash, demand draft, or cheque. ● Tax payment may also be done by visiting a nearby branch of Axis Bank or HDFC  bank.
  • While paying the property tax, ensure that the bank statements are addressed to  “Commissioner, South Delhi Municipal Corporation”.

Remember to carry the following documents while paying the property tax: ● Aadhar card

  • Property tax statement
  • Property ID (a unique number of property)
  • Old Property ID (the previous number of properties through which taxes were paid in  the past)
  • SDMC property tax challan of the previous years.

After the payment procedure is complete, keep the SDMC property tax challan safe for future reference.

The Online Method Of Tax Payment:

This method involves the following steps:-

  • Step 1- Visit the official website of the Municipal Corporation of South Delhi or  Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD)
  • Step 2- Choose from SDMC, WDMC, EDMC, or NDMC (according to the south,  west, east, or north Delhi corporations).
  • Step 3- Register with the website by signing up or logging into the portal. ● Step 4- After logging in, pay the property tax. There are three options displayed now:  ‘Apply for new UPIC,’ ‘Register new property for tax payment,’ and ‘Search property  on UPIC.’
  • If you have the Unique Property Identification Number, select the ‘Search property on  UPIC’ option. However, if you do not have a UPIC, then register your property  through ‘Apply for new UPIC’ and ‘Register new property for tax payment.’
  • Step 5- On submitting the UPIC on this portal, a list of properties with their details appears. Find the property for which tax is to be paid.
  • Step 6- Choose the ‘Action’ option against each property and then click on the ‘select property to pay tax’ option.
  • Step 7- Complete the payment of property tax through debit/credit card and net banking.
  • Step 8- Generate challan and download the tax receipt as a pdf.

You may also pay your SDMC Property taxes through a mobile application. Rebates on Property Tax

  • 15% rebate for early payment, i.e., during the first quarter of a financial year ● 30% rebate to senior citizens, women on a single property of up to 200 square  meters, ex-servicemen, and physically challenged people
  • 10% rebate on the annual value of CGHS/DDA flats of 100 square meters ● 20% rebate to owners of group housing flats who pay property tax before June 30 of  the financial year

Certain properties also lie exempted from SDMC Property Tax, like agricultural land,  property owned by families of martyred policemen or paramilitary forces, buildings used for charitable purposes or religious purposes, etc. If falling into the category of tax payment, it is advised to comply with the terms and conditions and fulfill the legal formalities to avoid grave consequences.

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