Global Environment Monitoring Systems Market – Drivers, Restraints, Opportunities, Trends, and Forecast up to 2025
Environment monitoring process includes all activities which are conducted to monitor the quality of environment including air, water, sound, and soil.
Air pollution can be attributed to the presence of air pollutants which are either natural occurring or generated due to human activities. Major air pollutants include particulate matters and gases such as NO2, SO2, CO, and ozone. Most common measure of monitoring air pollution (AQI) is based on particulate matters, NO2, SO2, CO, and ozone. AQI ranges from 0 to 500, with 0 being the best air quality and 500 as the worst.
Soil pollution is mainly caused by spilling of chemicals including oil and petrol from petrol stations and oil refineries and unscientific use of pesticides. Other major areas prone to soil pollution includes derelict land, landfill sites, and industrial sites. Considering other pollutions, soil pollution gets considerably lesser global attention. However, this is expected to change with more governments across the world enacting soil pollution law. For instance, in August 2018, the Chinese government passed the nation’s first law dedicated to soil protection and pollution prevention
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Water gets polluted mainly due to sewage and waste water, garbage from households, and toxic chemicals from factories and industries. Water pollution is measured based on three attributes namely – physical features, chemical composition, and biological factors. Physical features involve factors including turbidity, viscosity, and concentration of water pollutant in parts per million (ppm). Chemical composition measurement involves testing the water for various parameters including biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Biological factors involve measuring water based on the presence of microbes and other aquatic organisms present in the water.
Sound pollution accounts for loud noises emanating from vehicles, industries, machineries, and other activities including bursting of firecrackers and firearms. Sound pollution is mainly witnessed in urban regions with poor urban planning. Sound pollution is generally measured using a unit called decibel and is highly dependant on the time duration and distance of the sound source.