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Dewatering Fly Ash for Remediation

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Dewatering Fly Ash

Fly ash has properties and behaviors that present unique challenges during excavation,  handling and disposal. Fly ash material has historically been stored in ponds and is  known to be unstable and sensitive to vibration when saturated. When saturated fly ash  is subjected to shear strain, it densifies and expels water, resulting in a near total loss of  shear strength. In this state, the ash becomes a viscous fluid and may begin to slide or  flow. This process may result in overtopping or breaching of impoundments and makes  excavation and handling difficult to impossible.  Using a coal ash dredge makes this easier.

Changing the water content in the ash by only a few percentage points has a dramatic  effect on its behavior, allowing stable, near vertical cuts suitable for conventional mass  excavation. The increase in strength happens when a reduction in water content  changes the pore pressure from slightly positive to slightly negative, imparting apparent  cohesion and shear strength to the ash. 

The purpose of this paper is to discuss two different methods for lowering the water content of fly ash: one where the ash was impounded in low permeability soil and one where the ash was stored directly in contact with high permeability soil. In the first instance, dewatering was conducted with an interior system of closely spaced wellpoints. In the second case, dewatering was performed using widely spaced, high capacity deep wells. In both cases, dewatering allowed for the safe and efficient handling of the ash. These projects demonstrate both the feasibility and desirability of dewatering for these types of operations. 

  • Considerations
  • Landfills
  • Wet-to-dry ash handling system conversions
  • Handling and disposal systems
  • Closure of wet and dry ash disposal facilities
  • Environmental Studies and Permitting:
  • Permitting
  • Preliminary and detailed site investigations
  • Environmental assessments
  • Environmental investigations and remediation
  • Are There any Beneficial Uses?
  • Underground and surface mine reclamation
  • Coal yard base and pond liner material (roller compacted concrete)
  • Leachate collection system media
  • Protective soil cover systems
  • Ash Handling & Disposal:
  • Bottom Ash Handling
  • Fly Ash Handling
  • Pond Retrofit/Closure
  • DEWATERING IN A LINED POND 

The first project was a pilot dewatering test at the Pennsylvania Electric Company’s  Seward Generating Station in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. 

The project was extensively documented in a 1985 report published by the Electric  Power Research Institute.1 The station had been in operation since the 1920s. Until  1980, both bottom ash and fly ash were randomly deposited via slurry in storage ponds.  Two ponds were used at this plant; when the first pond was full, ash deposition would  switch to the second pond and the first pond would be mucked out. The ash would then  be transported and deposited at a final disposal site. 

After the closure of the storage ponds in 1980, the State of Pennsylvania required that  the ponds be emptied and returned to original grade. This presented two problems to  the plant owner: 1) because of the low angle of repose of the near-liquid wet ash, the  final disposal site did not have the capacity to store all of the ash in the ponds unless it 

was pre-drained, and 2) the state required the project to be completed in under two  years, requiring a relatively rapid method of pre-draining. 

At the time of the project, Ash Pond 1 only contained approximately 1.2 m of ash.  Therefore, it was decided to remove that ash without dewatering as it was thought that  the benefits of pre-drainage would not be worth the cost for such a thin layer. Ash Pond  2, however, contained between 2.1 and 3.7 m of ash and the plant owner decided to  use dewatering techniques for pre-drainage. 

Over the course of a nearly 11-day pump test with all 23 wellpoints pumping, the array’s  flow rate dropped from an initial value of 57 L/min to a final value of 13 L/min  Drawdowns of over 0.60 m were observed at the end of the test in three of the four  piezometers. 

Hand auguring was conducted up to 30 m away from the wellpoint line in order to  observe actual conditions in the pond just before turning off the wellpoints. Similar to  the pre-pumping condition, a 1 to 1.2 m thick stable crust was encountered. This time,  however, there was an approximate 0.9 m thick zone of thixotropic material beneath the  stable layer. This material would tolerate the digging action but flow when subject to  vibration. Below this zone the ash remained in a flowing condition. 

The hand auguring revealed that longer-term pumping could increase the thickness of  the excavatable zone (as compared to pre-pumping conditions) and that the thickness  increased closer to the wellpoint line. This improvement in ash characteristics extended  for a distance of approximately 12 m from the wellpoint line. Test pits dug near the  perimeter dike also revealed poor conditions immediately adjacent to the dike even  when pumping nearby. However, it was theorized that poorly controlled runoff from the  dike could have been a contributing factor to this phenomenon. 

Values of bulk hydraulic conductivity calculated from the pump test for the ash were on  the order of 10-2 cm/s. This value is much greater than the values typically assumed for  fly ash and is likely due to the co-mingling and layering of coarser bottom ash with the  relatively fine fly ash. 

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A Guide for Women on How to Style Formal and Semi-Formal Dresses

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Women look lovely in formal and semi-formal attire. They appear classy and sophisticated. Formal attire is typically thought of as stuffy, boring, and conservative. However, professional clothing for women can go beyond simple business clothes. By wearing the appropriate attire for formal situations, you can convey both a strong and feminine appearance. Simply said, semi-formal clothing is more formal than everyday party wear but less informal than work clothes. There aren’t any absolute laws, though. It all comes down to where you’re going and if you need to lean fancy or sophisticated. Let’s look at some alternative approaches you might take as some formal dress for women or semi-formal ones:

Top Women’s Semi-Formal Attire – Wardrobe Ideas

  1. Wedding-Related Semi-Formal Clothing

So, here is a dress that fits every requirement for a semi-formal wedding outfit. The crimson dress with a frilly one-sided sleeve has a formal design with a modern twist. You won’t need any more accessories if you just carry a clutch and put on ankle strap footwear.

  1. Classy Cocktail Dress

Formal dresses for women like shirt dresses are becoming more popular, much like T-shirt costumes. A gorgeous red shirt dress in chiffon might save the day for you. Choose dresses like this the next time you go purchasing because they are quite versatile.

  1. Semi-Formal Clothing: Top and Pants

Going to lunch with a possible client or businessperson? Or perhaps you’re going somewhere because you can’t be completely casual and want to be judicious with what you wear? Semi-formal linen, cotton, or chiffon shirt looks great with a pair of cotton or khaki ankle-length trousers. To complete the outfit, carry a sling bag, select opulent jewellery, and use moderate makeup with a vibrant lip colour.

  1. Semi-Formal Black Dress with Slits

Tired of hearing the same old dinner party preconceptions? Here is a dress that breaks up the repetition without making you appear uncaring. Black always wins when it pertains to hiding those curves. However, it does not imply that we must stick to traditional shapes from the past. Break the cycle. A creative way to pull this look off is with a long, Cami-style cut dress paired with ankle-strap shoes, loose waves, and a glittering side body bag.

Dress Code for Women in Formal Occasions

  1. Plain shirts and pants

The traditional solid shirts and trousers are a certain way to nail the western formal appearance for women. This enduring piece of work attire is the epitome of the adage “less is more,” and it continues to be effective today. White shirts and pants are regarded as a woman’s wardrobe necessity and are a must-have formal dress for women for work or other dressy events. For individuals eager to try out a western formal dress for the first time, the traditional shirt and trousers pair are fantastic. One costume that never goes out of style is this particular one.

  1. Professional blouses

Modern women’s formal attire frequently includes formal blouses. Formal blouses are a terrific complement to any woman’s collection, unlike males who have fewer options for their formal attire. Blouses are appropriate for regular office attire and can give off a demure, intelligent appearance. Go for neutral tones, pastel hues, and blouses with round necklines or collars when choosing a formal blouse. For a formal dress for women, spotted, checkered, striped, or intricate designs are also fantastic options.

  1. Blazers and coats

Unquestionably, blazers are a great choice as a formal dress for women who want to look professional. While formerly only worn by men, blazers are becoming popular among ladies for modern formal attire. This costume has the power to turn heads because of its rich colour and texture. For a polished, self-assured appearance, wear the blazer over a black or tan singlet beneath.

  1. Kurtas

While offering a more formalized palette than salwar sets, kurtas offer a similar sense of flair. Kurtas can be worn with formal slacks, tights, skinny jeans, or trousers to give girls and older ladies a more polished appearance. Kurtas as a formal dress for women can be worn in a variety of lengths and yet appear fashionable and refined. Women should avoid wearing short kurtas with tight clothes for a formal appearance. Choose neutral hues; pale browns, off-whites, and earth tones are excellent places to start. Choose ones that are lighter, breathable, and comfy for you to move around everywhere.

Conclusion

Women have a wide range of options when it comes to formal dress for women or semiformal dress. A semi-formal or formal outfit lets you make it entertaining without coming across as overly loud, whether it’s a seaside wedding, an interview, or a party atmosphere. You can choose from a dress, a skirt, pants, or even a stylish chiffon saree. Choose from the numerous alternatives above one that best suits your taste, the situation, and your personality. You may steal the show by styling it with the appropriate hair and cosmetics. You can buy formal dress for women at sites like Tata CLiQ.

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Your Guide To Finding The Perfect Seattle Lawyer For You

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Seattle Lawyer

Introduction

If you need a Seattle lawyer, it can be challenging to know where to start.. First, you will want to determine what legal issue you face. Are you looking for an attorney who specializes in criminal law? Or civil law? Do you need an attorney who practices family law? Or do you need an attorney who is experienced in business law? Once you have determined the type of legal issue that you are facing, it is important to narrow down your search by researching the lawyers in your area. You can find ratings and reviews of Seattle lawyers on websites like Yelp and Avvo. Finally, meeting with several potential lawyers is essential to get a sense of their work ethic, billing practices, and courtroom skills.

Challenges and Legalities of Finding The Perfect Seattle Lawyer

When it comes to finding the perfect Seattle lawyer, many challenges and legalities exist. One of the most important factors is whether you need a criminal lawyer or a civil lawyer. Finding the perfect Seattle lawyer can be a daunting task. There are many challenges and legalities to consider when selecting the right lawyer for your specific case. Some of the challenges you may face include finding an attorney with the experience and credentials you need, finding an attorney available on short notice, and budgeting for a lawyer’s services. Additionally, many legal complexities can arise during a case, and it is essential to have a lawyer who is up to date on the latest law changes affecting your case. If you cannot find a qualified Seattle lawyer through traditional means, consider using online resources or hiring an outside lawyer.

Things To Look Out For In A Seattle Lawyer

When looking for a Seattle lawyer, ask about their experience in specific legal areas. For example, if you have a personal injury case, ensure the lawyer has experience in that area. Additionally, ask about the lawyer’s ethical standards and how they will handle your case. Finally, ask about the lawyer’s fees and how much experience they have with handling legal matters. 

When choosing a Seattle lawyer, one must be aware of some things to look out for. Some of these dangers include not hiring a lawyer who does not have experience in your particular legal field, not hiring a lawyer who is unlicensed or does not have a valid law license, and not paying a lawyer until you receive a written legal opinion. 

It is also essential to ensure that the lawyer you choose has up-to-date experience with the current case(s) and laws. Finally, always speak with a lawyer before making any decisions about your case and ask for their advice if you have any questions.

Conclusion

Finding the right Seattle lawyer can be a daunting task. Fortunately, this guide has provided you with some tips to help make the process easier. First and foremost, it is essential to research your options before making a decision. Next, be sure to interview several lawyers before making a hire. And finally, always confer with an attorney if you have legal questions or concerns. Thank you for reading!

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Abu Dhabi Desert Safari

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Desert Safari

If you are looking for a fun way to explore Abu Dhabi, you might want to take an Abu Dhabi Desert Safari. This tour combines a visit to the desert with an excursion into the city. Companies offering this tour have been operating in the UAE for years, serving customers from around the world. However, there are a few things you should know before booking your trip.

Prices

Prices for Abu Dhabi Desert Safari vary based on the number of passengers and the type of service. You can choose from an overnight trip, which costs between AED 1100 and AED 1200, or a morning safari, which costs around AED 500 and lasts until 09:30 am the following day. You can cancel your trip free of charge up to 48 hours before the tour, and a 50% cancellation charge applies if you cancel 24 hours before the tour.

After you arrive at your desert camp, you will be treated to traditional Arabian entertainment. The entertainment will include a belly dance performance and an Arabic-style barbecue dinner. You can even get henna painted or enjoy a belly dance performance.

Activities

If you’re visiting the UAE, you must try an Abu Dhabi desert safari. This adventure includes camel riding, quad biking, sand boarding, and dune bashing, among other activities. The trip ends at a desert camping site where you can enjoy a relaxing evening. You’ll also get to see local artists perform, such as belly dancers and tanoura artists. The camp’s romantic atmosphere will transport you to a different world, one that’s reminiscent of Arabian nights.

You’ll also have the chance to try out sand boarding or sand skating, two activities that can be quite fun! These activities require a high degree of balance and skill to master. They last about 40 minutes, depending on your comfort level. Once you’re done, you’ll be able to spend the night in a Bedouin camp, where you’ll have a chance to experience the true luxury of a desert camp.

Duration

Abu Dhabi desert safari tour packages are offered throughout the year, and are especially popular between October and April, when the hot desert winds cool off and the temperature stays relatively cool. You should pack light woollens for the evening and wear comfortable clothing during the day. It’s best to check the company’s website for any safety regulations.

The duration of the Abu Dhabi desert safari depends on the package you choose. Some offer a full day of activities, while others feature only a half day. Some of the activities include camel rides and dune bashing. Other optional activities include traditional henna painting and belly dancers. The prices for these activities range from AED 200 to 300 per person.

Camels

When you go on an Abu Dhabi desert safari, you’ll have the chance to see wildlife such as Arabian gazelles and camels. You’ll also be treated to an authentic Bedouin experience as a tour guide accompanies you on the ride. While you’re on the camels, you can also watch the desert’s wildlife from up close.

Riding on a camel is a unique experience that will be etched in your memory for a lifetime. These animals were used as a mode of transportation in ancient times. Their unique qualities make them an important part of Abu Dhabi desert safaris.

Sand boarding

Sand boarding is a fun activity for the whole family. The sport is low-impact, but it does require some skill. A captain will be there to capture the best moments on camera. Alternatively, you can also opt for quad biking or dune buggying. The tour is suitable for those who want to get away from city life and enjoy the desert.

Conclusion

It is advisable to wear light-colored, breathable clothing. It is also best to wear a hat and sunglasses as the heat can be quite high. In addition, it is recommended that you wear sunscreen with a broad spectrum SPF 30 or higher.

 

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How to Keep Your Kids Entertained Over the Holidays

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Kids Holidays

The holidays can be a really fun time for kids, but it can also be a little challenging trying to keep them entertained. If you’re looking for some ideas on how to keep them busy, we’ve got you covered, with ideas ranging from jumping castle hire in Melbourne to Giant Jenga and movie nights.

1. Teach them how to bake cookies and other treats

The holidays are the perfect time to get into the kitchen and bake some goodies with your kids. Not only will they have a blast decorating cookies and cupcakes, but they’ll also be learning a valuable life skill.

If you’re not much of a baker, there are plenty of other easy recipes that your kids can help out with, like making homemade pizzas or decorating fruit platters.

Get them involved in the whole process, from measuring out ingredients to helping with the clean-up afterwards. They’ll love feeling like they’re part of something and you’ll get to spend some quality time together. Plus, you’ll end up with some delicious treats to enjoy!

2. Watch holiday movies together at night

One of the best things about the holidays is snuggling up on the couch and watching festive movies together. Take some time to make a list of all your kids’ favourite holiday films, pop some popcorn and grab some blankets, and settle in for a fun family movie night.

You could even make it into a bit of a competition and have everyone vote on their favourite film at the end. Movie nights are a great way to spend an evening together and create some lovely memories.

3. Hire a jumping castle for the day and invite their friends around

If your kids are bouncing off the walls with excitement, why not hire a jumping castle for the day? They can invite their friends over and burn off all that excess energy in a safe and supervised environment.

Jumping castles are great fun for kids of all ages and you’ll be able to sit back and relax knowing that they’re having the time of their lives. Plus, it’s a great way to tire them out before bedtime! Just make sure you hire from a reputable company and that the castle is properly insured.

4. Invest in some outdoor games like Giant Jenga and Cornhole

If you’re looking for something that the whole family can enjoy, outdoor games are always a good option. Giant Jenga is a great game for all ages and Cornhole is perfect for those sunny days. Investing in some outdoor games is a great way to get your kids away from screens and enjoying the fresh air. It’s also a great way to get the whole family involved in some friendly competition!

5. Get them into arts and crafts

The holidays are the perfect time to get creative with your kids and do some arts and crafts. There are so many fun and easy projects that you can do together, like making homemade cards, ornaments, or even gingerbread houses.

Not only will your kids have a blast getting messy and being creative, but they’ll also be proud of the finished products that they can show off to their friends and family. Arts and crafts are a great way to spend some quality time together and you’ll end up with some beautiful (and unique) holiday decorations.

So there you have it, five great ideas for keeping your kids entertained over the holidays. From baking treats to hiring a jumping castle, there’s something for everyone. Just remember to have fun and enjoy this special time with your loved ones.

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The Best Roofing Contractor in New Orleans: How to Find Them

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Roofing Contractor in New Orleans

A brand-new roof requires a considerable financial commitment. If done correctly, a new roof can raise the value of your house. Spend the time to make sure you locate a roofing contractor you can trust to install a roof over your head since roofing is one of the biggest and most costly jobs a homeowner can take on. When the time comes to decide to install a new roof, you want to be sure to use a reputable roofing contractor in NOLA that won’t overcharge you or perform a lousy job.

What should look for in a roofing contractor in NOLA?

1. Do they provide you with references?

To choose the best New Orleans contractor, ask for referrals from them. Request references from works that were done in the last three to six months from any contractor who offers you an estimate.

When you ask for references, a reliable roofing contractor will be delighted to provide you with them. By speaking with previous customers, you may confirm that the contractor was sincere in his or her responses to the issues raised in this article.

On the other side, don’t even consider working with them if they won’t provide you with references for their previous clients.

2. Does their experience include similar roofing work in NOLA?

Although it may seem simple, it’s crucial to be sure the New Orleans roofing contractor you choose is experienced in roofing. The first and most crucial barrier from moisture, mold and mildew in your house is its roof. You shouldn’t DIY or hire a handyman or general contractor to install a new roof.

Never be afraid to ask contractors to provide you with examples of previous projects they’ve accomplished. A qualified New Orleans contractor won’t hesitate to demonstrate their work to you. Speaking with their clientele is the greatest approach to determine if you have located a good one. The bottom message is that you must exercise caution.

3. What sort of guarantees do they give?

Inquire about the warranties related to your project from your roofing contractor. Your new roof may come with a separate warranty that is provided by the company that makes the shingles and other components that make up your new roof.

Warranties typically cover labor in addition to materials and craftsmanship. Working with a roofing business that performs high-quality installations is crucial since installation flaws might nullify a manufacturer’s guarantee on the materials. All warranties that relate to your roof should be provided to you in writing by your roofing contractor.

4. Who does the work, and does the roofer plan to subcontract?

The New Orleans roofer you choose ought to be the one who shows up for the job. Make certain that your roofing provider is not assigning your project to a subcontractor. Likewise, indicate who should be contacted about the position.

You have the right to inquire about the identity of any strangers who will be visiting your house. The identities of the individuals who will be on your roofing team are probably neither important nor known to you. You should never feel threatened or uneasy when someone is on your property.

5. What’s the price?

After conducting research, you will have a better understanding of how each roofing company in New Orleans handles pricing, which may guide you in choosing one that is within your price range. Look for cost differences and find out what services each firm offers. This helps you get a better notion of the project’s scope and price range.

If you find a quote that is much less than others, proceed with caution. Working with the least expensive firm could be alluring, but it might wind up costing you more in the long term. Working with a business that does shoddy work and improperly installs or repairs your roof may result in future expenses and higher roofing rates.

Get the best roofing contractor in New Orleans Today

Never accept a roofer from just any company. To choose which local roofing company is ideal for you, you should do research on a few of them.

If you choose wisely, the roofer will not only complete the project on time and within your budget but will also provide insightful advice on the highest quality materials for your home’s design and the weather where you live. You may be sure that trusted 24/7 roofing professionals will complete the whole job with the highest expertise, knowledge, and ability.

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