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Data center core switch overview

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With the development of information technology and the popularity of the Internet, the requirements for network equipment in data centers are gradually increasing, and ordinary switches are often unable to meet the needs of data centers. Data center-grade core switches are characterized by high quality service assurance and control identification capability, which can ensure stable and reliable data transmission, and higher security, simpler networking and faster service deployment.

What is data center core switch?

A core switch is not a type of switch, but a switch that is placed at the core layer (the backbone part of the network). It is located at the uppermost layer of the three-tier network architecture and is equivalent to the top manager of a company. Its main role is to quickly forward data from the aggregation layer and provide a fast and reliable network architecture by forwarding data at high speed. Generally speaking, the core switch has a large number of ports and high bandwidth. Compared with the access switch and aggregation switch, it has higher reliability, redundancy, throughput and relatively low delay. For a network with more than 100 computers, if you want to run stably and at high speed, the core switch is essential.

What is the difference between a core switch and a regular switch?

  1. Differences in ports

The number of common switch ports is generally 24 to 48, and most of the network ports are Gigabit Ethernet or 100M Ethernet ports, which are mainly used to access user data or gather switch data of some access layers. This switch can be configured with VLAN simple routing protocol and some simple SNMP functions at most, and the backplane bandwidth is relatively small.

The core switch has a large number of ports, usually modular, and can be freely matched with optical ports and Gigabit Ethernet ports. Generally, core switches are three-layer switches, which can be set up with various advanced network protocols such as routing protocols/ACL/QoS/load balancing. The main point is that core switches have much higher backplane bandwidth than normal switches and usually have separate engine modules. For example, if you want to upgrade your network from 10G to 40G, you can use the 40G QSFP+ to 10G SFP+ solution to connect the switches. This is done by sequentially inserting four 10G SFP+ optical modules into the 10Gbps SFP+ port of one switch, then inserting one 40G QSFP+ optical module into the 40Gbps QSFP+ port of another switch, and finally connecting them with a branch fiber patch cable in the middle.

  1. Difference in user connection or access to the network

Generally, the part of the network directly facing user connection or access is called access layer, and the part between access layer and core layer is called distribution layer or aggregation layer. The purpose of access layer is to allow end users to connect to the network, so the access layer switch has the characteristics of low cost and high port density. The aggregation layer switch is the aggregation point of multiple access layer switches. It must be able to handle all traffic from the access layer equipment and provide uplink to the core layer. Therefore, the aggregation layer switch has higher performance, fewer interfaces and higher switching rate.

交换机

The network backbone is called the core layer. The main purpose of the core layer is to provide an optimized and reliable backbone transmission structure through high-speed forwarding communication. Therefore, the core layer switch application has higher reliability, performance and throughput.

What are the characteristics of data center core switches?

Compared with regular switches, data center switches have the following characteristics: large cache, high capacity, virtualization, FCoE and layer-2 TRILL technology.

·Large cache technology

The data center switch changes the out port cache mode of the traditional switching system and adopts the distributed cache architecture, which is much larger than the ordinary switch. The cache capacity of core switches can reach more than 1G, while that of general switches can only reach 2 ~ 4M. Core switches need to be used with high-performance fiber optical transceiver. In the case of burst traffic, the large cache of the core switch can still ensure zero packet loss in network forwarding, which is just suitable for the characteristics of large number of servers and large burst traffic in the data center.

·High capacity equipment

Network traffic in data centers is characterized by high-density application scheduling and surge burst buffering, while ordinary switches are mainly designed to meet interconnection and interoperability, and cannot achieve precise identification and control of services, and cannot achieve fast response and zero packet loss in large service situations to ensure business continuity. Therefore, ordinary switches cannot meet the needs of data centers, and data center switches need to have high-capacity forwarding characteristics. Data center switches must support high-density 10GbE boards, i.e. 48-port 10GbE boards. In order to enable full wire-speed forwarding of 48-port 10GbE boards, data center switches can only adopt CLOS distributed switching architecture. In addition, with the popularity of 40G and 100G, 8-port 40G boards and 4-port 100G boards are becoming commercially available to meet the demand for high-density applications in data centers. In the future, to achieve the popularity of 400G network, we can only rely on data center core switches and 400G optical transceiver.

·Virtualization Technology

Data center network equipment needs to be highly manageable and highly secure and reliable, so data center switches also need to support virtualization. Virtualization is the transformation of physical resources into logically manageable resources to break down the barriers between physical structures. With virtualization technology, multiple network devices can be managed in a unified manner or services on a single device can be completely isolated, thus reducing data center management costs by 40% and increasing IT utilization by approximately 25%.

·TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links) Technology

In terms of building a two-layer network, the original standard of the data center is STP protocol, but it has some defects. For example, STP works through port blocking, and all redundant links do not forward data, resulting in a waste of bandwidth resources; STP has only one spanning tree in the whole network, and data messages can arrive only after being transferred through the root bridge, which affects the forwarding efficiency of the whole network. Therefore, STP will no longer be suitable for the expansion of super large data centers. 

TRILL is produced to avoid these defects of STP and is a technology for data center applications. TRILL protocol effectively combines the two-layer configuration and flexibility with the three-layer integration, so that the whole network can realize loop free forwarding without configuration. TRILL technology is the basic characteristic of the core switch in the data center, which is not possessed by ordinary switches.

·FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet) Technology

Traditional data centers often have a data network and a storage network, while the trend of network integration of the new generation of data centers is becoming more and more obvious. The emergence of FCoE technology makes network integration possible. FCoE is a technology that encapsulates the data frame of storage network in Ethernet frame for forwarding. The realization of this integration technology must be on the switches in the data center. Generally, ordinary switches do not support FCoE function.

The above network technologies are the main technologies of the core switch in the data center, which are not possessed by the ordinary switch. These technologies are network technologies serving the new generation of data centers and even cloud data centers. With these new network technologies, the data center has developed rapidly.

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Most Affordable Online Degree For Supply Chain Management in US

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USDegrees is a site that offers useful information to potential candidates about degrees that are accessible, with a concentration on online degrees from renowned U.S. universities. Those who are likely thinking about enrolling in an online program may lack the knowledge necessary to make a wise decision. U.S. Degrees provides reliable information on colleges and universities in the United States that provide online degree programs.

List of Most Affordable Online Colleges for Supply Chain Management Degree 

You’re in luck since we’ve compiled the top 10 affordable online universities that offer these programs. This list of universities with master’s in supply chain and logistics programs is not all-inclusive. These programs exist in a number of formats. Therefore we focused especially on those that are cost-effective, high quality, and adaptable.

UniversitiesProgramCredit HoursTuition (per credit hour)
Western Illinois UniversityMBA with a Concentration in Supply Chain Management30$323.64
University of Southern MississippiMS in Logistics, Trade, and Transportation-Online30$519.12
University of Wisconsin StoutMS in Supply Chain Management34$463
Athens State UniversityMS in Supply Chain Management30$327
Charleston Southern universityMS in Supply Chain Management30$650
University of Nebraska–LincolnMS in Supply Chain Management30$650
University of Wisconsin-ParksideMBA with a Concentration in Supply Chain Management30$600
University of Wisconsin-PlattevilleMS in Supply Chain Management30$675
University of Wisconsin-WhitewaterMBA with a Supply Chain Management Emphasis36$652

Obtain an affordable bachelor’s degree in supply chain management Online 

Supply chain managers plan, organize, and manage a company’s supply chain. They make sure that goods are delivered from suppliers to clients in a timely manner. Manufacturing and distribution are just two of the many commercial processes that are involved in the supply chain.

Flexibility is a benefit to online students seeking degrees in logistics and supply chain management. They can do their schoolwork from any location. Programs on supply chain management provide a focus on issues including inventory acquisition, warehousing, and transportation. Graduates can find employment in management, transportation, and logistics.

What is a supply chain Degree?

These degrees prepare graduates to oversee and manage the supply chain activities of an organization. The logistics and transportation of goods and inventory are the main topics of the programs.

What types of jobs can students get with a degree in supply chain and logistics?

Graduates have numerous professional options. They might work as industrial production managers, management analysts, or logisticians. Higher-level managerial positions are open to professionals with advanced degrees.

Why get a degree in supply chain management and logistics?

Students can prepare for professions in logistics by earning an online degree in supply chain management. The degree increases business understanding overall. Specialized supply chain management abilities are also developed by learners.

According to the BLS, the median annual compensation for logisticians is $76,270. This amount is higher than the $41,950 median yearly wage for all vocations. Professionals might raise their wages by obtaining a master’s degree or other qualifications.

Students who pursue supply chain degrees online have the freedom to finish their coursework when it suits them. Many courses are offered online, allowing students to keep up their jobs as they pursue their degrees. 

How much do students who major in logistics and supply chain management make?

Salary levels for supply chain management specialists vary depending on their position, employer, and geography. The majority of graduates work in corporate operations and logistics. The BLS estimates that the median annual salary for management analysts is $87,660. The average yearly pay for the top 10% of logisticians is $122,580.

Graduates can advance into high-paying employment by earning an advanced degree like an MBA.

Final Words

Being current and competitive in the supply chain is important for long-term sustainability because it is one of an organization’s core functions. Going back to school will make you more knowledgeable about the most recent Supply chain concepts, which will make you more valuable to companies. Think of the degree as an investment in your future. 

You may finish your studies from any location with wifi because many colleges and institutions now offer whole MBA programs and MS degrees online. Visit USDegrees.com to learn about what you need to know before starting your academic journey, and we’ll make sure you succeed.

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Signs of Bad Mass Air Flow Sensor

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Air Flow Sensor

Listed below are some bad mass Sensor Symptoms air flow sensor. If you notice your Air Fuel Rate is Too High or Too Low, your car may be suffering from a bad MAF sensor. Alternatively, your car may be experiencing jerky acceleration, and CODEP0101 may be displayed by your OBD-II scanner. In either case, you need to contact a mechanic right away.

Your Air Fuel Rate Is Too High

If you have noticed your air fuel rate is too high, the problem is probably the mass-air-flow sensor. Your vehicle’s MAF sensor is responsible for sending the right amount of air and fuel to the engine, and if it is not accurate, the car will run too rich or lean. Below are 5 common symptoms that indicate a bad mass air flow sensor. These symptoms may also be caused by other issues, but if they occur simultaneously, they’re a good indication that the mass air flow sensor is to blame.

The Check Engine Light: The check engine light will turn on if your MAF sensor is to blame for your high air fuel rate. This means that your vehicle’s mass sensor has failed. This code means that your vehicle needs to be serviced or repaired. It will come on if there is an issue with the air metering system or the throttle body. You can also replace the MAF sensor yourself if the problem persists.

Air Fuel Rate Is Too Low

If you’ve noticed that your car’s air-fuel ratio is too low, it might be time to take it to the mechanic. A bad mass air flow sensor can cause all sorts of problems, from trouble starting to poor fuel efficiency. Here are some symptoms to look for. If you notice hiccups and hesitation when you’re trying to accelerate, it’s most likely your mass air flow sensor.

If your MAF sensor is bad, you’ll notice a number of symptoms. Your car might not respond to acceleration properly, experience engine stalling, or hesitate when you’re accelerating. These symptoms can lead to serious injury or even accidents. You can’t diagnose a bad MAF sensor yourself, but a basic understanding of how the device works can help you narrow down the diagnosis.

If you’re having trouble with your vehicle’s fuel economy, re- calibrating MAF sensor might be the answer. In this article, we’ll cover the most important steps to calibrate your MAF sensor. But don’t worry if you don’t have a car with a MAF sensor – there are still ways to do this yourself. First, remove the MAF sensor if you don’t have one.

Your OBD-II Scanner Receives CODEP0101

When Your OBD-II Scanner Recognizes CODEP0101, your next step is to determine what caused the code. In some cases, you may need to look at the vehicle’s freeze-frame data to recreate the circumstances that led to the code being generated. For example, if you are experiencing idling problems, loss of power, reduced gas mileage, or black smoke coming from the tailpipe, it is likely the MAF sensor. If the cause of the P0101 code is a different component, you should contact a mechanic.

If you can’t identify the problem, it may be a simple air flow sensor. If the air flow sensor fails to function properly, the car won’t set the proper fuel-to-air ratio. Other problems associated with this sensor include rough idling, poor gas mileage, and a larger amount of pollutants. Unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are extremely harmful to the environment, and the carbon monoxide resulting from this sensor malfunction can result in a failed emissions inspection.

A Suddenly Jerks During Acceleration

When your car jerks during acceleration, you may be looking at a bad mass air flow sensor. This component controls how much air is injected into the engine, and a clogged mass air flow sensor can lead to bad acceleration and stalling. A bad MAF sensor may also cause issues with air fuel ratio and drivability. To find out if you have this problem, use an OBD-II scanner to diagnose the problem.

If you suspect a bad mass air flow sensor, check your vehicle’s engine’s management control unit (EMC) to find out if it’s faulty. The ECM will store fault codes for the sensor, so you’ll have to pull a diagnostic unit to retrieve them. To test the sensor yourself, hook up the wires to a voltmeter and measure the voltage. A reading of 2.5 volts or higher is normal.

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Most important components to anticipate in heat press appliances

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I’m sure you have come across so many T-shirts, plates, mugs ceramics, and so many others with graphic designs that are appealing to the eye. This machine is used to transfer quality and colorful graphic designs for whatever business you are doing that involves graphic designs. It is also accompanied by so many attachments.

When you go shopping for one to use in your business you will realize they differ in value and durability.Take into consideration the following to be on the safe side.

Level of heat all through the platen

One vital aspect of a heat press machine 8 in 1 is an equal level of temperature. During transfers, errors can occur more frequently than anticipated this is caused by cold spots which are caused by inadequate heating elements used in making plates. Pick the ones that are modeled with the correct heating elements.

Precise heat

It must be correctly control the pressure. We all know that when the pressure is too high a lot of force is applied which might cause graphic adhesives to be pushed far away beyond the ends of the portraits. And when there are less heat adhesives are not usually activated this is very important during transfers.

 Level force

The only way to equal pressure is how the upper key is made. some of these cheap machines don’t have these aspects at all. Presses should have an adjustment knob that is coupled with floatation to avoid undesirable results.

 Warranty of the machine

Having a machine that has a lifetime guarantee on the heat platen is worth it. Quality ones have both a lifetime platen warranty and a one-year limited warranty on parts and labor with corrosion resistance anodize aluminum framework which makes it stronger.

Fits your workplace

Examine your workplace and consider your counter space to avoid any inconveniences that may arise after purchase.

Compatibility with the workload

If you are printing long production runs, you need a press that maintains consistent heat and accurate temperature. The choice of heat pressing is depended on heat recovery time which may either delay or fasten your work. Heating elements should be placed at least 2 inches apart to facilitate even heating. Machines with thin platens lose heat more quickly than those with thicker platens, thus reducing recovery time before the subsequent pressing. Quality presses are the best bet on recovery time, though expensive.

 Press size

Press’ size is influenced by the extent of transfers you intend to use. Sizes vary from 8.5’’×11’’ to 16”×20”. The selected option should be reliable, easy to transport and accommodate a wider user interface.

Cost

In any business, equipment is often considered dead capital. Heat press efficiency in production is dependent on quality and specifications. Heat Press Machine Price varies with the type of machine. For instance, smaller presses are cheaper than bigger ones with higher quality and redefined features.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the machine is cheap and quite affordable. And it’s highly recommended for business people if only it has the above components avoid going for cheaper products they always cost in one way or another. Go for quality ones. 

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Using a website heatmap

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A heat map is a website visitor tracking tool for measuring and displaying statistics on clicks on your site, which evaluates the effectiveness of the resource and its individual parts. In simple terms, a heat map shows the activity of users on the page, and which parts of the resource are of more interest to visitors.

The promotion of a website or resource on the Internet requires a serious approach. Analytics and analysis play an important role in this process. To evaluate popular pages and parts of the site, there is a special heat map. This map is also called a click map because the data is displayed as areas that users click on.

Heatmap Features

There are many benefits to using and analyzing data with a heat map. The advantages of using such a mechanism include the following factors:

Thorough and comprehensive analysis of the activity of site visitors. You can easily see which pages and parts of the page people are interested in. The information is available in a simple and understandable way.

You can easily identify uninteresting content and remove it, make the resource in demand for users.

It is a good tool for analyzing the effectiveness of introducing new applications and page parts. The information provided is presented in an accessible and convenient way, so it is easy to understand the information received.

Considering these factors and advantages, we can safely say that this is an effective way to analyze users, their preferences, and interests. If you rationally use this information, you can do a better job of promoting the site.

How to apply data from the site heatmap?

People can use this data for different purposes. Most often, these are resource administrators and website promotion specialists. Thanks to the data received, you can quickly get rid of ineffective materials, articles, videos, images, and other information that is of the least interest to visitors. The heat map is also used by specialists in the promotion of online stores, blogs, and other resources that need popularity and demand among visitors.

How Heatmap works

The heatmap solution operates on the basis of information that it receives from web resources. First, it performs a statistical slice of the page, which, after loading using JavaScript, redirects to the Heatmap service. Based on the received data, a map of all site elements that users work with is formed. The service then collects data on visitor activity. As soon as a new user starts interacting with the site, information about this is entered into the created heat map.

When is the best time to use heat maps?

Heatmap technology is one of the main tools of the Internet and content marketers. It shows the greatest efficiency in the following cases:

Content marketing. With the help of a heat map, the optimal content size and winning positions for the placement of CTA buttons are determined.

A/B testing. Using a heat map, you can test and select different landing options, and determine the effectiveness of the location of site elements and CTA buttons.

Redesign. With the help of Heatmap services, you can track user behavior at each stage of the redesign. This allows you to evaluate its effectiveness compared to the previous version.

The information that heat maps provide is easier to digest than statistical data. By analyzing heat map data, you can learn how users interact with the site and take steps to improve usability.

But keep in mind that heat maps are more effective in combination with other analytics tools, otherwise the data will be limited and may provoke incorrect conclusions.

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TikTok Counter: How to find out everything about a TikTok user

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There are several ways to get the exact number of followers in real time. In this case, we recommend Countik.

By entering a TikTok user’s username, you can see how many followers they have. The tool also provides additional information such as the number of likes, the accounts that the user follows, and the videos that the user has uploaded.

To put it another way, Countik is a very useful tool for getting to know every TikTok user in depth.

In this article, we will explain what the TikTok Counter is and how you can use it to learn everything you can about a TikTok user.

How to use the TikTok Counter

  1. Select the profile to be used: You do not need the profile URL for this followers counter tool, but rather the user’s username only.
  1. Go to the TikTok Counter Tool: Once you’ve decided on a profile, navigate to Countik.com and enter the username.
  1. Verify the profile whose data you want to examine. If in doubt, look at the profile photo of the account to see which one you want to see.
  1. Allow time for the data to load. When you select a profile, it takes a few seconds for the platform to load all of the data, but then everything is ready. Once the data is loaded, you can examine all of the information provided by the tool: if you keep the page open, you can see how the various numbers change in real time.

How to compare two TikTok users?

You can also use the TikTok counter ( Countik ) to compare two TikTok users. This is useful if:

  • You need an influencer from this social network for a campaign and want to compare it to other options.
  • You want to compare your profile to a competitor’s.

To use the tool to compare two TikTok users, click the “Compare” button at the top of the screen.

The platform currently only allows for the comparison of two users. Enter the desired usernames in the two inputs on the page to change them.

It would look like this: 

How to get TikTok videos analytics?

This tool allows you to get the exact number of views a TikTok video has in real time; simply click “Video Views” at the top of the page to access the tool.

People usually use this tool to see if a video is doing well, to see what you can improve as a TikToker or as a marketer.

To use the tool, simply enter the video url or the shortened version, whichever you prefer, and click the search icon. Now wait for the page to load and you will see the views, likes, shares, and comments for the video update live.

It would look like this :

To conclude

Countik can be used in a PC, android and IOS all from a web browser, and now you understand how to analyze and compare TikTok users and videos. For videos just enter the video URL, and for comparing and getting TikTokers statistics It’s simple just enter your own username on the Countik website and have the counter provide you with account data.

More tools : 4 TikTok Counter Tools That Reports in RealTime

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