Characteristics and varieties of tires

One of the main components of the wheel is the tire. It performs the function of adhesion of the vehicle to the road surface. Safety and comfortable movement are ensured by absorbing vibrations caused by uneven road surfaces. Different tire models differ in size, chemical composition of materials, tread layer. Depending on the features, the operating conditions and purpose differ.

Structural features

The structure of the tire has a complex structure, which includes: tread, shoulder and sidewall of the tire, nylon and steel (breaker) cords, bead. Let’s consider each component in more detail.


This is the outer part of the tire that contacts the road surface. It performs not only the function of grip, but also protects the wheel from damage. Depending on the type of tread, the level of wear resistance is determined. The embossed pattern ensures performance in various road conditions.


The shoulder area is the section that is located between the sidewall and the tread. It maintains the interaction of the tread with the carcass and stiffens the sidewall of the tire.


The sidewall protects the frame from mechanical damage and water ingress. In this place, marking is applied with information about the model, manufacturer, date of manufacture.


A rubberized fabric layer with threads is called a cord. Depending on the arrangement of the threads, there are diagonal and radial tire designs. In the first embodiment, a metal or synthetic cord is placed diagonally between two rims. The second provides for a perpendicular arrangement with respect to the direction of travel.

Radial type tires are in great demand. This feature is due to its long service life.


This is the thickness of the cord placed between the carcass and the tread. It enhances the interaction of the two elements and prevents detachment of the “treadmill”.


Designed for fastening, sidewall sealing and stiffness. Consists of a rubberized steel wire wheel.

Varieties of tread pattern

They produce 3 types of patterns, according to which they classify:

• non-directional;

• directed

• asymmetrical.

Non-directional tires are made up of two identical halves. They are versatile and suitable for use in the city. They have balanced characteristics and are resistant to dry and wet weather. Installation does not require any special skills.

Directional pattern similar to the Latin “V”. The rubber is suitable for use in wet weather and during melting snow, providing water drainage and improving grip. The direction of rotation must be observed during installation.

The asymmetric tread pattern differs on the inside and outside of the rubber. Provides safety, maneuverability and reliability regardless of weather conditions. The cost is much higher than the ones listed above. Installation rules must be followed.

In addition, the pattern on the tread determines the seasonality of rubber use: winter, summer, all-season.

Summer is characterized by the absence of micro-drawing. Reliable adhesion to asphalt is ensured by the presence of grooves for water drainage.

A feature of winter tires is the narrow tread channels. This factor allows you to drive a vehicle on ice and maintain its elasticity.

All-season have good properties for use in hot and cold weather. The nuances include the low duration of use.

Possession of information about the structure of tires, rules of use and storage, will ensure a long period of operation and the safety of passengers.

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Christophe Rude

Christophe Rude

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