The Antistatic additives for plastics are special additives for reducing the build-up of static electricity as well as the electric charge in the case of plastic products. The antistatic additives help in reducing the buildup of static charges on the surface of plastic which if not used to reduce the static charge buildup will hamper the processing procedures.
Also, the antistatic additives help in reducing hygiene as well as aesthetics issues due to charges(Grob et al., 1999). These additives are majorly added during processing and molding procedures and are mixed with the plastic matrix during extrusion as well as these migrate to the surface of the plastic. Also, these are used in association with conductive fillers for improving anti-static efficiency. The commonly used antistatic additives for plastics consist of ethoxylated amines(Yanjin, 2003) fatty acid esters as well as quaternary ammonium compounds along with alkyl phosphates and alkyl sulfonates.
The major role of antistatic additives for plastic is based on making the plastic surface conductive as well as improved absorption of moisture present in surrounding air. The major application of the antistatic additive in plastic is during transportation of the plastics as well as during processing along with filling and handling bulk plastics. In addition to this, these additives are useful for avoiding dust which is a major problem of catch by packed products by plastic films.
Working of anti-static additives:
These anti-static additives help in reducing the static build-up on the plastic surface. The plastic surfaces are majorly electrical insulators and thus have the support of high static build-up. Thus anti-static additives help reducing static which gets produced due to charge separation as well as the movement of one material over another. These additives reduce the resistivity of the plastic materials and help in neutralizing the surrounding static field. The anti-static additive help in eliminating issues related to high static in plastic-like dust attraction to surfaces as well as electrostatic discharge (ESD). These are added to plastics while the compounding as well as injection molding.
The work is based on utilizing a co-continuous ion-conductive polymer phase in case of long term anti-static activity. Majorly the ions play the role of charge carriers present in the additive and help in dissipating the static field.
In the case of anti-static additives in plastics, the major role is to control or limit ionization. For plastics the use of anti-static additives like high impact polystyrene helps in reduces the static buildup by decreasing the surface resistance.
Thus, the additives decrease the static electric charges which make the plastics conductive, as well as help in improving interaction with moisture in the atmosphere and ultimately results in the formation of a microscopic layer of water on the plastic surface. This moisture layer helps in the production of conductive path useful for static dissipation.
Types of anti-static additives for plastics:
The anti-static additives are major of two categories internal as well as external additives.
- The internal anti-static additives are added in the blending process of plastic manufacturing which occurs at the extrusion level as well as molding. The addition of the molecular additive is done by blended homogeneously with the plastic which helps in building the required surface resistivity useful for electronics packaging. After the cooling of the mix, the antistatic additive migrates to the plastic surface and starts picking moisture from the environmental air.
- The external anti-static additives are dissolved into a solvent which is then sprayed and also can be applied as a coating on the plastic. It is a topical coating which is not blended with the plastic material, thus there is a risk that this additive might be rubbed off which reduces the effectiveness of the product in the long term (Huang et al., 2004).
The antistatic additives area further categorized on basis of the type of plastic, and thus chemical structures of the additives vary. The two major groups of anti-static additives for plastics are non-ionic as well as ionic additives.
- The ionic additives are majorly used for plastics that have relatively high polarity. Also, they are further categorized as cationic compounds and majorly consist of quaternary ammonium salts.
- Also ionic contain anionic compounds which consist of phosphorus which are phosphoric acid along with phosphates and used for polyvinyl chloride as well as polystyrene.
- Also, the non-ionic additives are used for polyolefins and consist of amide derivatives i.e. alkoxylated amides as well as glycerol esters(Hochberg et al., 2001).
Advantages of using Antistatic Additives for Plastics:
- These anti-static additives provide a permanent as well as immediate effect
- Also it doesnot alter the properties of the host plastic material(Ding et al., 2004).
- These are helpful for reducing the handling problems while transportation as well as storage along with packing in case of plastic products with high static electricity.
- Also, these additives are helpful in reducing dust attraction and thus affects the performance as well as the appearance of the plastic products
- These are beneficial in avoiding the risk and hazard of electrical shock to employees who work with plastics and customers that use them
- Also, the anti-static additives are helpful in decreasing the hazard of electrical discharge which might cause an explosion or erupt a fire(Markarian, 2008).
Characteristic features of anti-static additives for plastic:
•Majorly these compounds are hydrophilic as well as possess hygroscopic properties,
• These additives have the property of ionization in water i.ee these additives have ions enhance the conductivity of water.
• Majority of anti-static additives have the ability to migrate towards the plastic surface material(Dudler et al., 2000).
Application of antistatic additives for plastic:
The raw material which is majorly used in the production of packaging film in the food industry is polyethylene which is made with the significant addition of anti-static additives. It is used in the production of foils, bottles as well as packaging, containers along with drinking water pipes(Hausmann, 2007). The use of anti-static additives is vital as this plastic surface has a high level of resistance which makes it essential to avoid the electrostatic phenomena and prevent the accumulation of various charges.
Q1: What are antistatic additives for plastic?
Ans: Antistatic additives are also known as surfactants help in decreasing the polarization of plastic products.
Q2: How antistatic additives for plastic work?
Ans: Antistatic additives which are added during extrusion and moulding of plastic products work by decreasing the surface resistivity of plastic materials as well as static electricity causing charge dissipation. Thus these additives help in reducing the risk of occurrence of the adverse electric shock phenomenon.
Q3: What are different categories of anti-static additives for plastic?Ans: On basis of the addition of the additives to the plastic they are external as well as internal additives. But on basis of charge, they are categorized as ionic and non-ionic additives. The ionic additives are further of two types:
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Most wanted certifications for ESL teachers
As soon as you have decided to become an English teacher, you will encounter lots of new acronyms in terms of teaching. A huge variety of them may confuse not only new brands but also experienced teachers. That is why we have decided to elaborate on each certification and shed light on how to choose an appropriate one. Keep reading this article to know more about teaching qualifications.
Probably, you have already heard such things as ESL and EFL teaching. But, what do they mean? Truth be told, there is a slight difference between them, however, it makes sense when it comes to working abroad. Before starting packing you should pick a country to settle down. And depending on your choice you may become either an ESL or an EFL teacher. By the way, you may be both.
The first fits the bill if you want to teach non-native English speakers in countries where the language is official or mandatory. Whereas the second is for those, who want to teach in such countries, where English isn’t the official language, for example, in Asian countries.
Let’s figure out how to choose a course depending on your goals, preferences, and skills.
It is one of the most recognized teaching certifications. Most employers worldwide require it. This qualification fits to teach people in such countries as Japan, Vietnam, Thailand, and others where English isn’t the main language. It is one of the most important requirements in many schools, language centers, and private institutions. It is enough to be aware of the most effective teaching techniques and make a rapport with students who speak a different language.
This one allows you to teach non-natives in English-speaking countries, such as Canada, the US, and the rest. Furthermore, if you are into academic achievements and think of getting a master’s degree, you will be able to get it in TESOL. English-speaking countries, consider the TESOL qualification is relevant to domestic teaching, whereas TEFL leads to teaching abroad.
Another similar certification also lets you teach people who don’t usually speak English in their motherland. The distinction between TESL and TEFL certificates is about teaching location. TESL is similar to TESOL because having it you may work with non-native English speakers, where English is primary. So, if you have TESL you can work in the United States, Canada, Australia, or the United Kingdom.
CELTA provides information about teaching adults. So, in comparison with TEFL, TESL, and TESOL, there is no information about working with kids and teens. Another difference from the previous courses is that there is only one organization with the right to teach CELTA. Fortunately, there are many branches of the Cambridge English Assessment. It equals a four-week or 120-hour TEFL course. Despite the fact that there is the only regulating body, all CELTA schools can work independently, in other words, they can choose materials and provide some help without approval from the main department.
There is a diploma in teaching English to adults. As CELTA, DELTA is provided and offered only by the University of Cambridge. As for the main difference, DELTA requires candidates to have at least one year of teaching experience to enroll in the course. It is quite intensive and informative, so it’s better to take it when you are into getting more professional accomplishments, especially credentials from Cambridge University. Apparently, it will be impressive to have such a mention on your resume, however, it isn’t necessary to have it to teach English abroad.
Myths and questions
Most institutions around the globe consider TEFL and TESOL as interchangeable courses because both of them allow teaching non-native speakers, the only difference is the choice of location.
In spite of the fact that CELTA is believed to be the most respected certificate for English tutors, it doesn’t mean you must take it to teach abroad. As we mentioned, it is equivalent to TEFL but doesn’t provide knowledge about teaching kids and teenagers. Moreover, CELTA is quite expensive and takes all time to study, so it’s hard to handle it even with a part-time job.
So, CELTA isn’t the only way to become an ESL teacher, as we figured out, TEFL certification is more than enough to get a job abroad. CELTA is just a brand of TEFL certification that is offered and regulated by a specific institution. So, don’t be surprised to see other similar offers, for example, Trinity certification. Accreditation and program standards are more important things when it comes to getting a course.
Depending on your skills and preferences such certifications as CELTA and TEFL may become more or less relevant. If you are interested in playing games, imitating sounds, and singing songs with children, CELTA won’t help you at all. And having it to apply for a job in Asia doesn’t make any sense because such countries as Thailand and China usually look for ESL teachers for children.
However, if you love thought-provoking topics and critical thinking it’s better to opt for CELTA to teach only adults in language schools. Unfortunately, most of the CELTA providers can’t flaunt that they provide any help to teachers with regard to job search. Hence, it isn’t the best option especially if you take CELTA in one country and plan to work in another. You just won’t get any help beyond the place where you are studying. Think of your confidence, whether you are ready to cross the labor market alone.
Which certificate to take?
In a nutshell, it doesn’t matter what acronym you will turn to. What is more important is accreditation and a valuable course program. As an ESL/EFL teacher, you must meet certain standards, so it’s better to choose a reliable leader in the teaching realm.
There are some crucial things which must be in a course:
- at least 100 hours of theory and coursework, equals 4 weeks of studying on the spot;
- at least 6 hours of practice with real students;
- high-qualified native trainers, who teach you and provide feedback;
- a course has a particular curriculum, which is accredited and controlled by one of the reliable accrediting bodies.
Such information will come in handy when you start searching for a TEFL course. As we mentioned, there isn’t the only awarding body in comparison with CELTA, so you have to be careful and check all points above to pick a provider, who will tick all the boxes with regard to standards of teaching. Also, help with job searching, making a resume, and visa documents will help you not to get lost.
If you are dreaming of working abroad as an ESL teacher, you should start with a place. Think of the climate, salary, and other important details. In our teacher’s blog, you may find interesting information about teaching in different countries. When you know where you are going, you will be able to choose a course for teachers wisely. And after checking a provider in terms of all points, you may study. Frankly speaking, it takes much time to find a reliable TEFL provider.
International Certification provides top-notch support in terms of studying, making an impressive resume, and even searching for a job. Its online course TEFL/TESOL is accredited by one of the most respected accrediting bodies ACCRIN, which is located in the UK. There are two courses in one, which means you can easily work in both types of countries, English and non-English speaking countries.
You will be taught and supported by qualified and certified trainers, who are also native speakers. Also, you may select a course duration to fit it into your typical schedule. Getting a 120-hour TEFL/TESOL course you will know about learning approaches and teaching people of different ages. So, you will always have a chance to work with students. Enroll in an online TEFL/TESOL course with a huge discount.
How to Adjust to Online Learning
Now more than ever, a lot of people are deciding to gain their education online. Switching from in-person to online can be a difficult transition for some, but there are a variety of tips one can follow to make the change easier.
Make a Schedule
Firstly, when someone is switching from in-person to more affordable online education, they will want to prioritize making a schedule.
Keeping the mindset that online classes are like standard classes will help use the same scheduling. Keep an itinerary that includes any lectures, homework, and study time. It would be best to be as thorough as possible and include not just days in the schedule but weeks and months too. Following the timetable as close as possible will help keep up a good routine and give a feeling of normalcy.
Get Rid of Distraction
One of the biggest downfalls to online learning is how easily it becomes to get distracted. ‘When someone is at home with their cell phone within reach at all times, it is easy to become distracted and put aside the homework that is due.
It may not be possible to eliminate all distractions, but putting in a bit of effort to minimize them can make a big difference in productivity. For example, giving family members or roommates a copy of a schedule can be useful for them to know when they need to try to be quieter. It may also be helpful to place any electronics that could be distracting, like the TV remote or a cell phone, in a separate room. Any small steps that can be taken will make a considerable difference in lower distractions and raising productivity.
Communication is Key
When learning online, it is a bit of an adjustment when it comes to how to communicate well. Especially since, most of the time, a student will not have the opportunity to meet the professor. This may create extra difficulty in online education since it is hard to communicate tone in an email and could get misinterpreted. Therefore, a good idea would be to review the best and most professional way to write an email to avoid misjudgments.
Also, as with in-person learning, never be afraid to ask questions during video call lectures or after lectures. It is not a sign of weakness if something taught is difficult to understand. So, never be afraid to raise that virtual hand and ask questions.
Don’t Forget About Mental Health
With online education, mental health can sometimes be pushed to the side. A student needs to remember to take breaks in between their classes. Doing something that brings joy or peace, like exercising, journaling, or reading is essential to online learning.
It is also important to bring attention to true feelings. Changing to online education can be difficult, and admitting feeling overwhelmed is not a sign of weakness. On the contrary, sorting through emotions and caring for mental health will help with online learning.
Overall, a person switching from in-person education to entirely online needs to give themselves patience. It is an adjustment, but following these tips will help ease the process.
What the K-12 Education Reform Means for Your Child
The K to 12 Program is a mandatory government program that covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]). This program was designed to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education. The K to 12 Program is important because it helps to create a well-educated society that can compete in the global economy. The program aims to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education. The program has successfully met these goals, with students achieving better scores on national exams than students who only received six years of formal schooling.
What to Expect with the K-12 Education Reform
The K-12 education reform is a big change for schools and parents. The reforms are aimed at making the education system more efficient and effective. One of the changes is that all students will receive a common curriculum from kindergarten through 12th grade. K-12 Education Reform will allow students to learn more effectively and be better prepared for college and careers. Parents will also have more choices when choosing schools for their children. These reforms are intended to make education more affordable and accessible for all students. Some of the changes that you can expect include:
- A new grading system that will better reflect student performance.
- A reduction in the number of required courses.
- More emphasis on career and technical education.
- Changes to how funding is awarded to schools.
What are the Benefits of Using Worksheetsgo?
Worksheetsgo is a website with a wide variety of worksheets covering various subjects. These worksheets can be used for school, home study, or personal use. There are reading worksheets, math worksheets, English worksheets, and more. You can find whatever subject you need to be covered in a handy, printable format.
The program covers Kindergarten through Senior High School and provides six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School. It is hoped that this program will provide students with the necessary foundation to succeed in life. Worksheetsgo provides worksheets for children in preschool, kindergarten, 1st grade, 2nd grade, 3rd grade, 4th grade, 5th grade, 6 grade, and 7th grade.
They have many worksheets covering various topics such as math, science, spelling, reading, and more. It also offers downloadable worksheets so you can print them out for your child. It is a great tool for helping students learn and practice math problems. Worksheetsgo has various worksheets specifically designed for different purposes, such as math facts, multiplication tables, and fractions. Worksheetsgo also includes helpful tips and instructions to help students succeed.
The K-12 education reform means that your child’s school will need to adapt and change. It is important for parents to be involved in their children’s education and to be supportive of the educators working hard to provide quality education. There are many ways for parents to help their children thrive in this new environment, and all families need to take advantage of the available opportunities.
5 Easy Ways to Improve English Grammar
We all face difficulty learning English grammar, so we will discuss the matter today. We will suggest an easy process to learn English grammar that you can implement in your regular reading and talking. You can follow these steps to make it a success.
You need to know the right rules of grammar. If you read the right books, you will be able to learn how to use them correctly. We will discuss the grammar of English today. These are nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs.
Learning the parts of speech is easy, but you have to practice the correct usage. Here are a few suggestions to help you to improve your English. If you have questions about the language, then you should check out the web.
When you fail to make another process a success, use an online platform. How about you get a native 日文家教 who guide you to learn English grammar? Then you should try AmazingTalker and make your troubles go away.
Easy Ways to Learn English Grammar
We will discuss now the easy process that you should try out. It is not complicated but you can try them out for your fast learning.
- Carefully read through a grammar manual
You have to get a grammar book or online e-book to start your grammar lesson. For this you can try a physical class or a tutor too, here the process you have to learn. When you understand grammar rules better, you can implement them.
In both cases, you will learn basic grammar rules. There are many different grammar guides available for free, but you need to choose the right one. You should use a physical dictionary or online electronic dictionaries.
Learning grammar has been an important part of many people’s lives. However, they are not as interested in using the language correctly as they are in getting the meaning across. If you are a student, you must practice your skills by writing assignments and essays.
- Listen to others
Try to listen to native speakers as to how they talk. They use normal and easy grammar in their conversation. Try to follow them and copy them in your speaking, it will help you to move ahead and learn grammar easily.
We use it to speak with others or to read the news or the newspapers. That’s why we recommend that you study English so that you can speak to others or read the news or the newspaper in your own language.
If you do, you will be able to understand what is being written in English. This can be a real advantage. If you want to do something to help others who speak a different language, you can also be of assistance. We recommend that you take a course and start reading English books and articles.
- Pay attention to apostrophes
You have to know the rules of grammar and how to use apostrophes. It tells you where to stop and how to use it to bring variation. When you are good at using this, it will make you a Pro in grammar.
Knowing how to use the apostrophe correctly will enable you to have a good command of English. Some common examples of the apostrophe include the word “don’t”, the word “does”, and the word “don’t”.
- Practice makes perfect (especially in writing)
You have to write a lot of English for your own learning, when you have a native friend then he can help you with checking out your grammar. You can also use grammar apps to make your learning easy too.
Grammar apps help you check out your spelling and grammatical errors. You can use these apps to check your writing skills as well. Most of them offer free trial periods, and you can continue using them even after the trial period.
- Do more readings
You have to read news, articles and stories to understand how to form sentences. In this way, you can know that grammar is used for each statement. You have to read a lot to make your grammar better.
It is the language that we use to talk to others about what we believe and what we want. It is used to convey information about ourselves and others. It can affect the outcome of our message, so it is important to study it thoroughly.
AmazingTalker offers customized language courses to all levels of students globally, you can connect with professional native tutors and build up personalized 線上課程 that perfectly suit you 24/7. You will get the best support from them and you will gain more skill too. In reality you need an 線上英文 who will guide you through the process. AmazingTalker could be the best solution for our language and grammar learning.
4 Innovation Accounting Strategies To Implement in 2022
Businesses must stay ahead and remain competitive by producing innovative products and services. But handling innovative products can be a tricky affair. Their early stage development is fluid—with high uncertainty and steep failure rates.
A solution for this perennial problem is innovation accounting. Through innovation accounting, your firm can develop and track new products and business models faster. So, you can align them with your overall business strategy to drive your competitive edge.
Innovation managers and corporate ventures can now understand their innovation project risks better. That allows you to make an informed decision on the projects and avoid resource and time wastage. This can be crucial, particularly if you’ve limited resources or a broad innovation projects portfolio with different sizes and all running simultaneously.
Incorporating innovation accounting as part of your innovation ecosystem can help you track and measure each innovative project. As a result, you can determine your riskiest assumptions and gain real-time insights into your programs from a single source.
Innovation accounting strategies can boost innovation efforts and scale your products and growth. Let’s unpack what innovation accounting is before exploring innovation accounting strategies worth implementing in 2022.
What Is Innovation Accounting?
Innovation accounting offers a structured approach to measuring your innovation’s progress. Using innovation accounting helps you create relevant and actionable metrics for each stage of your innovative product development. So, you can invest wisely and make informed decisions on your innovation projects.
As a result, it complements traditional accounting (TA), which is ill-equipped to measure a new product’s early stage. TA metrics like market share or ROI can not apply to a new innovative product.
At such a nascent stage, you may have only tested your project amongst a handful of users for feedback for iteration and better final product development. So, a market share can’t be an actionable and realistic metric at that stage.
Innovation accounting focuses on the most crucial and essential metrics at that stage. The goal is to uncover real-time insights into your innovation progress and determine your risks. So, you can achieve product-market fit and scale your product(s) for growth opportunities.
Let’s explore four innovation accounting strategies to implement in 2022.
- Focus on Customer Needs
All your innovation accounting metrics at the early product development stages should focus on customer needs. That’s the only way you can connect to the market needs and achieve a product-market fit.
For example, you can track a metric like a customer feedback to help make the product iterations that serve users better. Alternatively, you can use conversion rates to see how many users have tried the service or product.
As the product progress through the production cycle, each stage should have actionable metrics. Actionable metrics will help you uncover valuable insights into your progress.
- Create Actionable Metrics and Avoid Vanity Ones
Metrics and evaluation are the core of the lean startup approach to product development. But, evaluation alone is not enough; you must measure the right aspects or things. Sway on the wrong or unnecessary elements, and you’ll be deep down vanity metrics.
On the contrary, actionable metrics are specific and give right/wrong or good/bad data results that are unmistakable. Plus, they are tied to the hypothesis you are testing. It will help you determine the outcomes of changes or product features.
Additionally, the actionable innovative metric should be:
- Accessible. The metric should have clarity and supporting data widely available to every team member and relevant stakeholders.
- Auditable. The results should be traceable and reproducible from the source data by any project team member.
- Finite. The metric should be tied to the hypothesis being tested. The report’s data should allow you to measure what you need. Evaluate what you need to validate a business idea and move on to the next assumption. So, metrics changes as the product move from one development stage to another.
For example, assume you have an incredible e-commerce website product.
At the initial stages, you will be limited to metrics like active members, reviews, social media shares etc. As the product matures and reaches the marketing stage, you can track conversion rates, customer satisfaction, revenue etc.
Upon reaching the mature stage and being well known, you can track metrics like churn rate, retention, cost of production etc.
Remember, every innovative project is unique – so the actionable metrics may be different and specific to each case scenario.
- Create a Better Funnel Innovation Process
Funnel innovation is part of the Lean Thinking approach that helps you to screen for innovative ideas and prototypes for viability. It will allow your firm to determine which creative ideas are realistic or which ones are not.
Integrating innovation accounting into the funnel innovation process helps evaluate your idea’s usefulness through prototyping and minimum viable product (MVP). So, you can validate your business ideas and models faster and more efficiently.
The traditional funnel innovation model looks for ideas and resources internally. The model is better if you have an extensive research and development (R&D) team. You can also opt for the open innovation (OI) rocket model, where you accept ideas and development externally.
The OI rocket model is best-suitable if you have external collaboration in the market. Also, it is an excellent asset as most ideas are tied to the market and customers’ needs. Moreover, the development of solutions leads to better technical knowledge.
So, you must evaluate the numerous and continuous ideas you get daily or weekly. A funnel innovation process hinged on IA can come in handy for effectively and efficiently qualifying the ideas.
- Develop Quality Impact Mapping
Source: Open Data Watch
Another crucial approach you should include as part of your innovation accounting is impact mapping. Impact mapping is a robust planning method that helps you manage your innovation goals and priorities, identify risks, and explore solutions.
It focuses all interested parties on the essential features without including unnecessary details. That allows you to test your business idea assumptions and evaluate their potential value. You can also leverage it to achieve your objective faster. Put differently, it helps achieve a more mature delivery.
Innovation accounting handles everything on measurement and tracking. To gauge the impact of your idea or project, you must apply relevant metrics to test that. So, incorporating impact mapping in your innovation accounting process can keep your team focused on the goal and delivery.
In essence, impact mapping can help stakeholders develop roadmap decisions and react quickly to the dynamic business environment.
You can only make informed decisions on your innovation projects if you have the proper insight and data. Whether it is the amount of investment or resources to commit, you’ll need to support your actions based on data insights.
Innovation accounting offers a structured measurement approach to get innovation progress data insights. You can enhance your innovation accounting process by leveraging some of the abovementioned strategies. They will help you produce new products and business models faster and more affordable for the market.
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