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Antistatic additives for plastics

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Antistatic
Antistatic

Background: 

The Antistatic additives for plastics are special additives for reducing the build-up of static electricity as well as the electric charge in the case of plastic products. The antistatic additives help in reducing the buildup of static charges on the surface of plastic which if not used to reduce the static charge buildup will hamper the processing procedures.

Also, the antistatic additives help in reducing hygiene as well as aesthetics issues due to charges(Grob et al., 1999). These additives are majorly added during processing and molding procedures and are mixed with the plastic matrix during extrusion as well as these migrate to the surface of the plastic. Also, these are used in association with conductive fillers for improving anti-static efficiency. The commonly used antistatic additives for plastics consist of ethoxylated amines(Yanjin, 2003) fatty acid esters as well as quaternary ammonium compounds along with alkyl phosphates and alkyl sulfonates.

The major role of antistatic additives for plastic is based on making the plastic surface conductive as well as improved absorption of moisture present in surrounding air. The major application of the antistatic additive in plastic is during transportation of the plastics as well as during processing along with filling and handling bulk plastics. In addition to this, these additives are useful for avoiding dust which is a major problem of catch by packed products by plastic films.

Working of anti-static additives:

These anti-static additives help in reducing the static build-up on the plastic surface. The plastic surfaces are majorly electrical insulators and thus have the support of high static build-up. Thus anti-static additives help reducing static which gets produced due to charge separation as well as the movement of one material over another. These additives reduce the resistivity of the plastic materials and help in neutralizing the surrounding static field. The anti-static additive help in eliminating issues related to high static in plastic-like dust attraction to surfaces as well as electrostatic discharge (ESD). These are added to plastics while the compounding as well as injection molding.

 The work is based on utilizing a co-continuous ion-conductive polymer phase in case of long term anti-static activity. Majorly the ions play the role of charge carriers present in the additive and help in dissipating the static field.

In the case of anti-static additives in plastics, the major role is to control or limit ionization. For plastics the use of anti-static additives like high impact polystyrene helps in reduces the static buildup by decreasing the surface resistance. 

Thus, the additives decrease the static electric charges which make the plastics conductive, as well as help in improving interaction with moisture in the atmosphere and ultimately results in the formation of a microscopic layer of water on the plastic surface. This moisture layer helps in the production of conductive path useful for static dissipation.

Types of anti-static additives for plastics:

The anti-static additives are major of two categories internal as well as external additives.

  • The internal anti-static additives are added in the blending process of plastic manufacturing which occurs at the extrusion level as well as molding. The addition of the molecular additive is done by blended homogeneously with the plastic which helps in building the required surface resistivity useful for electronics packaging. After the cooling of the mix, the antistatic additive migrates to the plastic surface and starts picking moisture from the environmental air. 
  • The external anti-static additives are dissolved into a solvent which is then sprayed and also can be applied as a coating on the plastic. It is a topical coating which is not blended with the plastic material, thus there is a risk that this additive might be rubbed off which reduces the effectiveness of the product in the long term (Huang et al., 2004). 

The antistatic additives area further categorized on basis of the type of plastic, and thus chemical structures of the additives vary. The two major groups of anti-static additives for plastics are non-ionic as well as ionic additives.

  • The ionic additives are majorly used for plastics that have relatively high polarity. Also, they are further categorized as cationic compounds and majorly consist of quaternary ammonium salts.
  • Also ionic contain anionic compounds which consist of phosphorus which are phosphoric acid along with phosphates and used for polyvinyl chloride as well as polystyrene.
  • Also, the non-ionic additives are used for polyolefins and consist of amide derivatives i.e. alkoxylated amides as well as glycerol esters(Hochberg et al., 2001).

Advantages of using Antistatic Additives for Plastics:

  • These anti-static additives provide a permanent as well as immediate effect
  • Also it doesnot alter the properties of the host plastic material(Ding et al., 2004).
  • These are helpful for reducing the handling problems while transportation as well as storage along with packing in case of plastic products with high static electricity.
  • Also, these additives are helpful in reducing dust attraction and thus affects the performance as well as the appearance of the plastic products
  • These are beneficial in avoiding the risk and hazard of electrical shock to employees who work with plastics and customers that use them
  • Also, the anti-static additives are helpful in decreasing the hazard of electrical discharge which might cause an explosion or erupt a fire(Markarian, 2008).

Characteristic features of anti-static additives for plastic: 

 •Majorly these compounds are hydrophilic as well as possess hygroscopic properties,

• These additives have the property of ionization in water i.ee these additives have ions enhance the conductivity of water.

• Majority of anti-static additives have the ability to migrate towards the plastic surface material(Dudler et al., 2000).

Application of antistatic additives for plastic:

The raw material which is majorly used in the production of packaging film in the food industry is polyethylene which is made with the significant addition of anti-static additives. It is used in the production of foils, bottles as well as packaging, containers along with drinking water pipes(Hausmann, 2007). The use of anti-static additives is vital as this plastic surface has a high level of resistance which makes it essential to avoid the electrostatic phenomena and prevent the accumulation of various charges.

FAQS:

Q1: What are antistatic additives for plastic?

Ans: Antistatic additives are also known as surfactants help in decreasing the polarization of plastic products.

Q2: How antistatic additives for plastic work?

Ans:  Antistatic additives which are added during extrusion and moulding of plastic products work by decreasing the surface resistivity of plastic materials as well as static electricity causing charge dissipation. Thus these additives help in reducing the risk of occurrence of the adverse electric shock phenomenon.

Q3: What are different categories of anti-static additives for plastic?Ans: On basis of the addition of the additives to the plastic they are external as well as internal additives. But on basis of charge, they are categorized as ionic and non-ionic additives. The ionic additives are further of two types:

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Facts About Environmentally Friendly Steel

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Steel is an essential part of modern life and modern economies. There are many ways steel production and usage can be adjusted to be environmentally friendly. Here are five facts about environmentally friendly steel.

1. Tempered Steel Has A Long Lifespan and High Resource Efficiency

One of the most effective and useful methods of making steel is tempering steel. This is the process of heating the steel to the critical temperature and then quickly cooling it. Heating and cooling may be performed once or several times, depending on the type of steel you’re making or the type of product it’s being used for. Tempered steel is more elastic and less brittle than non-tempered steel, which means it’s more durable and therefore has a much longer lifespan. These batches of steel are less likely to corrode or warp, for example. Products with longer lifespans get thrown out and recycled less often, which contributes to the higher resource efficiency of tempered and cold-formed steel. In addition, this durability means your steel is less likely to require repairs or replacements, which also contributes to resource efficiency.

2. There Are Steel Industry Sustainability Efforts

The steel industry has many efforts geared toward environmental sustainability, as well as toward economic and social sustainability. Many of these sustainability efforts include improving the energy efficiency and environmental cleanliness of its industrial processes. In the United States, for example, electric arc furnaces are the most often used furnaces in steel production, with more modern types of fuel sources using renewable energy now being implemented. They greatly reduce the American steel industry’s carbon footprint. The American steel industry also makes an effort to use high-quality iron in its steel production, in the form of iron ore pellets. These pellets emit much smaller amounts of greenhouse gases than other sources, such as sintered iron.

3. Steel Is Continuously Recyclable

Steel is one of the types of material that can be recycled continuously. Not only can some of the processes used to create steel be adapted to become greener, but the steel itself can typically be recycled into new steel products when it’s finished its current use. In recent years, steel has become the number one most recycled material in the world. This holistic approach to the lifecycle of steel and steel products can greatly reduce the environmental impact of the steel industry. When you recycle steel instead of creating new steel, you can cut industrial emissions and conserve more energy.

4. Steel Can Support Green Constructions

Because steel is so integral to most industries, consumer products and constructions, it can be leveraged to support green initiatives in industries and construction. For example, steel can support large amounts of weight, so it can be used to support rooftop terraces and greenhouses in urban areas. These constructions can help better insulate buildings, prevent water runoff and help reduce the heat island effect. However, all these benefits come at the cost of these structures and the organic matter they house being incredibly heavy. Steel can ensure you can install one of these structures without risking the integrity of your building.

5. Steel Is Part Of The Circular Economy

Steel is considered part of the circular economy mainly due to its continuous recyclability. Not only is the steel itself fully recyclable, but its byproducts can be recycled as well. All products and byproducts of the steel industry, when processed properly, can be used and reused in a continuous loop. The main benefit of steel being part of the circular economy is that it’s also the underpinning of a large part of the world economy. If the steel industry becomes greener and more environmentally friendly, then the hope is that all of the industries that are related to or that benefit from steel will follow along and become more environmentally friendly too.

Steel is already an environmentally friendly material. There are several methods of creating steel that are safe for the environment, as well as many ways existing steel can be leveraged to support other environmental and green efforts.

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Should I have a Rap Rhyming Dictionary?

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Rhyming Dictionary

I’m going to chase about this: you shouldn’t find a rap-specific rhyme dictionary. Duration.

Why? You may ask why am I so opposed to it? Okay, it will, but not better than a dictionary of real rhythms.

Here’s why: You can find some words in a rap dictionary that wouldn’t be in a regular rhyme dictionary, the opposite is almost always true. Rap rap dictionaries focus too much on one genre, and so rappers who rely on them become very clicky and worn out.

 “His rhymes are so basic …”

Unfortunately, many young rappers follow the advice in this dictionary and sound like thousands of other rappers who read the same thing. If you want to stand out, you have to use rhymes that no one has ever thought of putting together and trust me, I have never heard a rapper sprinkle “monochromatic” with “melodramatic”.

Guess what? I got it from a real rhyme dictionary.

Words that aren’t in a real rhyme dictionary are also real, don’t get me wrong. It’s just that obscene words are everywhere, and therefore less likely to sound fresh and original. My advice: go with the real deal without following the crowd and risk listening to the real …

It has worked for all the greats and should work for you too.

Just to get your mind working, here’s a list of words I’ve never heard on rap:

Melodramatic

Hypocrisy

Monotheistic

Fearless

Cheers

Together

Ubiquitous

Conversion

Megalomaniac

Worrying

How to use nursery rhymes to help learn

Nursery rhymes are important for creating vocabulary and learning to read. They are also invaluable for building memory because it has been found that rhyme helps especially. Learning something in beat or tempo such as “September, April, June, and November have 30 days” is better stuck in the mind than learning in rot and this is why rhythm is used as an aid to memory. How many people remember nursery rhymes since childhood, like the Humpty Dump …

Nursery rhyme introduces children to poetry and various aspects of poetry such as meters and syllables. Nursery rhymes can be fun to learn; You can talk to them, sing to them, act to them, clap with them and have fun with them. So, let’s take a nursery rhyme, Miss Muffet, and see what we can do with it.

Little Miss Muffet

Sitting in a taffeta

Eat her yogurt and lentils

With it came a spider

Someone sat next to him

And the frightened Miss Muffet away

Why look at the words nursery rhymes and ask if your child understands them all. Do they know what Taft is? Or yogurt and lentils? It will be a great opportunity to get out of the dictionary and study the words together. If you do research on your child, make it fun by playing the role of the nursery rhyme. Do you have a seat for them to sing? Do you have a toy spider that you can use to hang in the air and rest on the floor next to your child’s chair? If your child is older then you can see what yogurt and lentils are and their origin.

If you want to do something more physical, why not run home or garden in search of your own spider? Can you find one on the floor or ceiling? Can you find a web, and what is a web?

If your child has a phobia, use fun game ideas to talk about their phobia. Do house spiders harm you? How are the spiders in the garden? Maybe in Australia but certainly not in England. How to draw a large NO and color it. Then discuss why spiders are good? A big advantage is that they kill flies and can spread fly diseases.

Writing poems about spiders or creating a scary story to tell dad or grandpa can be a great idea.

As you can see, just by exploring nursery rhymes you can unleash your child’s imagination and have fun learning. So what is the result of this idea? By researching words they don’t understand and your kids will learn new language skills and how to make words, their vocabulary will increase as they play with different words and rhymes and use their imagination. They can learn visualization skills and motor skills and their confidence will increase as they become more confident and will be able to communicate more with adults. 

Developing a child’s memory, especially in the critical years from 0 to 5, will work wonders for your child. Their mental intelligence will increase and more importantly, they will discover that learning can be fun. And what could be better than this?

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A Guide to Learning Experiences

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This captures everything that constitutes a learning process — from activities and classes which take place in a traditional classroom setting to those activities, classes, or sessions that occur outside of a traditional classroom environment.

Learning experiences in educational settings should ideally be interesting, challenging, engaging, meaningful, rich, and appropriate to learners’ requirements. They often include different contexts and environments that transform the learners’ views, trigger emotional qualities, assist conceptual understanding, and foster the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. When it comes to predicting further learning, previous learning experiences play a crucial role.

For creating an effective learning experience, educators need to understand the learner’s context (past, present, and future), find out and respond to the learner’s current level of knowledge, and provide appropriate and adequate practice over time.

Unlike what many may think, learning experiences aren’t just a binary relationship between a learner and the educational content. Rather, they are about when, where, how, and why a learner interacts with the content. Thus, learning experiences depend on factors like application, engagement, and collaboration. Their efficacy is also evaluated by how well they can meet the learners where they are in their different stages of learning requirements, irrespective of whether they are taking up refresher courses or brand-new ones.

There are different methods to enhance learning experiences in particular ways. For instance, standardized tests and quizzes backed by rapid feedback, trial-and-error activities, or guided step-by-step exercises and demonstrations can encourage a behaviorist approach to learning. Educators can use real-life-based projects, group or individual problem-solving sessions, treasure hunts, etc., to foster a cognitive or constructivist approach. Several other learning activities can be organized to encourage a relational approach or social learning approach. The key is to interact with real people and real-life situations or simulate them to find answers to problems or locate resources that can help address a need.

A lot of learning experiences are designed with the brain in mind. However, it’s important to realize that learning isn’t just about the brain. Several meaningful actions in this world are, in large part, created and driven by social and cultural norms. As a result, learning too is significantly influenced by social and cultural context. Since the emotional, cognitive, and socio-cultural dimensions of learning are interrelated, educators need to consider them when designing learning experiences.

Learning experiences are influenced by multiple factors, which is why they should be designed with a human-centric approach that ignites intrinsic motivation.

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Do you think a 7th grader should wear makeup to school?

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Do you think a 7th grader should wear makeup to school?

Introduction 

People in Seven Grader School Life are cuter than anyone. At such an age one should think about how consistent the makeup is. But 7th grader school age that doesn’t take time to think about makeup. Of course, when I was in 7thgrade in school life, I never used heavy makeup. Heavy makeup can have a very irritating effect on the skin. Since you have to stay in school for a long time, so there is no reason to wear heavy makeup.Although many people are much more confident in makeup, I did not like to do makeup on my skin.  Oil blotting sheets are enough for the skincare of a SeventhGrader School student. It absorbs all the oil from the surface of the skin and returns a radiance. The best makeup solutions for school life in the seventh grade are mentioned in this article. Hopefully, you read the end of the article, to get a better experience.

7th grader makeup to school

Makeup doesn’t suit school life, and at this age, everyone has a different look. So using makeup can cause various skin problems at a young age. So going to school with full face makeup can be unsafe.Applying makeup in 7th-grade school life can ruin the look in a few days. Also, throughout the day, makeup on the face can create uncomfortable wax that is not manageable for a young person. But people of all ages want to present him in a very beautiful way.

In addition to makeup, there are many other great options, that can give much better results than makeup. Pleasingcare blotting paper is very effective for the skin, it helps to keep the skin fresh and radiant throughout the day. In particular, it is a great option for kids to take care of their skin without makeup.

You may need to wash your face for a long time because you have to go to school all day. At the moment your makeup will fade completely. So consider any process that can give your skin a serenity without any kind of face wash. Pleasingcare is one such skincare solution, here you will find some great products instead of makeup. You should try it once or two time, then, you will realize how much better it is than makeup.

Young people do not need any makeup for an ideal skin. At this age, there is a lot of elegance and cuteness in the face. However, pleasingcare blotting paper can be used to absorb excess oil from the skin. It is completely safe for the skin and does not cause any allergic problems. Pleasingcare provides you with the best ways to take care of your skin every day.Last words:So I think, 7th graders should wear makeup to school, not at all reasonable.Since there is a good support to maintain the ideal look of the skin, therefore, a look of cuteness should be enhanced in the face without makeup.

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How to Choose a Dissertation Topic for Masters?

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Are you planning on writing your dissertation? What topics have you thought about? Is there a specific topic that you want to cover in your research paper? Maybe you are just lost with what you want to research about.

But choosing a dissertation topic can be one of the hardest things you csn do since all ends well what starts well. When you choose your topic, it has to be based on many factors. There is a discipline for choosing a topic for your master’s Dissertation Help Online. One should be following these steps to get the most ideal topic for your dissertation according to your subject. To know the steps read further.

1.   Choose the affair that interests you

You have tons of subjects that you like, some interest you more than others. Choosing your research project correctly is the key to your dissertation success. If you choose an affair that interests you, then you will have the motivation to continue with it.

But if you choose a subject or event that you dont particularly like, but are picking it out due to its’s scope then there will be a high chance that you will start to avoid writing your dissertation. You wont be able to complete it in the given timeframe or worst you will make mistakes in your dissertations.

2.   Passion for the research gap

The research gap is the most important element in picking your topic. There have been tons of researches on one subject. But with every research there is a down side, a researcher cannot cover all the aspects. There has to be some area of a research that gets left out. Therefore, when you look for a topic to cover in your dissertation. Make sure to check previous researches, look for existing researches on the subject you like.

Then you try to find the gap between two to three researches on the subject. When you do that you can get tons of literature review for said research topic. This is gold for a researcher or a masters student.  

3.   Overused research

Yes there is such thing as overused research. There are topics that have been researched on many times. There is no new information to give. The data collection is none existent and the research does not provide any additional information to the reader.

Your research should be beneficial to the reader, it should especially give new perspective to a research  subject or event. Therefore when you look for a research topic, you should check if you are not doing the same research as others have repeated done before.

4.   Is it even plausible?

Realistically speaking, can your educational institution even fund your research? Can it provide you with the kind of resources that is required for your research?

When choosing a research topic in your field of study. You have to be certain that you can achieve something in the said field. The research has to be plausible. It cannot be something that is so complicated that you cannot fanthom the process.

You have to be able to complete your research with your studies and other coursework. So if you pick a realistic topic, that can be covered without a lot of problems then you wont have to worry about anything. Yes uniqueness is appreciated but the jury panel doesn’t like extremely complicated topics that do not benefit anyone.

Your university will only fund a research when it provides valuable information for everyone to get benefit from.

5.   Completely unbiased

It has to be unbiased, your topic should not be something that gets you rilled up and emotional. There is no place for feelings in your dissertation. It is purely based on research and research only. A dissertation topic cannot be presented persuausively, taking sides. You cannot persuade your readers with your writing or research topic.

That is not how it works. You have to actually presents facts that will make the readers mind about the research themselves. You shouldn’t down right come out and persuade the readers about the objective of the research. The research will speaks for itself.

6.   What will benefit your professional growth

The research topic should be so strong that it supports your professional growth. When you write your masters dissertation, your motive is to use this dissertation on your resume.

This is a true fact that your dissertation will be your badge of honor when you enter the professional world. A student with a master dissertation will always be preferred over a student who doesn’t have one. Some students get Help With Mphil Thesis by The Research Gaurdian to get the best written dissertations. They know what is at stake professionally and that is why they try to get the best service.

A well written and well researched dissertation will be the star of your professional life.

7.   Your supervisors should approve it

When you pick out your research topic, the jury panel and your supervisors should approve of it. If they do not like the topic, they will reject it. Therefore, before you finalize your topic, make sure to check with your supervisors. Universities have their own criteria of research topics. If they don’t give you permission for the dissertation then you shouldn’t go along with it.

There are many reasons why your university or college disapprove your research topic. It could be because they don’t have funding for your dissertation. Or their calculations show that you wont be able to complete your dissertation on time. Another major reason why colleges don’t accept your dissertation topic is because they don’t believe that your topic is worth spending time and money on. Maybe the topic has been researched many times and now they don’t have faith in it.

8.   Least potential criticism

When you write a dissertation, you need to keep in mind that you will be a target of criticism. There is always room for criticism from the public eye. Some of it will be constructive and some of it will be out of spite. But if you prefer to not have fingers raised at your hard work, then pick a topic that is less controversial then the lot.

This will safe you from unnecessary attention. You want your reputation to flourish. You also want your dissertation’s name to be included in good literature review. This is the reason why you choose a  topic that will be ideal for students and other researchers.

Summing up the post

The more you look into successful and famous dissertations. The more you will realize that the most loveable dissertations are the ones that cater to the masses. The ones that help other students and researchers by contributing to the field.

Easy but crucial research topics that will give your reader enough information about the research field. Therefore you should be able to pick a topic that provides relevant information for the other students and researchers. Good Luck!

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